Autor: Servan
jueves, 04 de enero de 2007
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VASCO DENE

Expansión del vasco dené, según Mauricio Swadesh, U Aut Mex 1987 Image Hosted by ImageShack.us Image Hosted by ImageShack.us


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  1. #1 Servan 19 de ene. 2007

    *=ācVŋ- 'to catch, take' (WFR 126): PNC *=ācĒ(n) > Chech. ēc-, Ing., Bac. ec- 'take'; And. =ison-, Cham. =isã-, Tind. =isĩ-, Kar. =isan- 'to find'; Tsez. =is-, Khv. =as- 'to take'; Lak. =aci- 'to steal', =uci- 'to bring, deliver'; Darg. =uc- / =urc- 'to take' (dial. 'to catch'); Ag. f-ac- (dial. f-acan-) 'to catch', Arch. sa- id.; Ub. wə-ć(ə)- 'steal'. PST *chĕŋ > Burm. ćhań 'to collect', Kach. ciŋ 'to gather up', Lush. seŋ id. (?) PY *k-as- ( ~ g-) 'to take' > Ket. kɔ:śi4 (Kur.), Bak., Sur. kɔ:śə4 // kɔśə4, South. kɔś4 [but Werner 1, 413: kaś-]; Yug. kasɛsaŋ6 "in order to take". In ССЕ 234-235 I have explained the irregular correspondence between Ket and Yug by a contamination of *kas- and *qōs- q.v. Werner 1, 413, however, corrects the Ket forms like k:si to qɔ:śi and adds distinct Ket forms like kaśaś 'nehmen (kaufen)', thus clarifying the situation and allowing to avoid a contamination hypothesis. See *xkmćỺ. *=āčĂŋ- 'to pull, lead' (HGC 37, WFR 131): PNC *=āčĂn 'to go, to lead' > Chech. q-āč-, Ing., Bac. q-ač- 'to arrive'; Av. =áč-ine, Cham. =ačī-, God. =ečĩ- 'to lead', Lak. =ači- 'to go, be heading (somewhere)'; Abkh. a-ca-rá (Bz. a-ća-rá), Ab. ca-ra 'to go, walk'. PST *ćăŋ 'to bring, arrange' > OC 將 *ćaŋ 'bring, offer; take; arrange'; Tib. ãćhaŋ (p. bćaŋs, f. bćaŋ, i. ćhoŋ(s)) 'to hold, to keep; to carry; to wear', Burm. ćhaŋ 'to make, construct, arrange', Kach. kəǯaŋ, ləǯaŋ 'to arrange', Lush. čaŋ 'receive, get', Yamphu caŋ-ma 'to bring or take smth. out'. PY *čāŋ- (~c-) 'to pull, drag' > Ket. taŋ4 (South.), North. ta:ŋə4, Yug. ča:hŋ Kott. ačaŋ "catching"; ačaŋākŋ "to catch". [Length in PY is probably compensatory.] *=áčw 'to take, hold' (HGC 38): PNC *=ăčw 'to take, carry' > Av. =ač:-, Cham. =ač-id- 'to carry'; Gin. =aš- 'to find'; Darg. =uč- 'to gather, collect', Chir. =alč- / =ulč- (with an unclear -l-) 'to take'; Lezg. q:-aču- 'to take', Tsakh. sa=če- 'to take away', Ud. eč-sun 'to bring'; PWC *čₙV > Ad. a-, Kab. ša- 'to take, carry'. PST *ĆŏH 'to seize' > OC 取 *ćhoʔ 'to take'; Tib. ã-u 'to seize'; (?) Burm. ćhwajh 'to grip, catch (a person)'. [Cf. Basq. *eući 'to take, hold, seize, grasp'.] 2 *=axgwV 'to look, see' (NSC 54): PNC *=agwV 'to see' > Chech., Ing. g-, Bac. gu-, =ag-; Akhv. hari-gu- (hari- '*eye'); Tsez. =ikₙ-, Gin. =ük-, Khv. =akₙ-, Bezht. =egā-; Lak. k:ₙa=k:ₙa-; Darg. Ur. gₙ-, Chir. ʕul=irg-; Lezg. ak:ₙa-, Ag. agₙ-, Rut. h-a=gₙa-, Arch. =ak:u-, Ud. ak:-sun, etc. PST *kₙēn (~ *gₙ-) 'to glance at, regard' > OC 睊 *kₙēn 'to glance at'; Lush. khon 'to regard, pay attention to'. PY *qo ( ~ χ-) 'to see' > Ket. d-ba-ŋ-sɔ-ʁɔ, praet. d-ba-ŋ-lɔ-ʁɔ (South., Werner 2, 29); Yug. di-ba-ŋ-s-ɔ, praet. di-ba-ŋɨ-r-ɔ (Werner 2, 29); Pump. ja-xa-ldi 'I see'. [Acceptable if *-n in PST is a historical suffix.] *=aGwỺń- 'to lose': PNC *=aGwV(n) 'to lose, be defeated' > Chech. ħ-ēʁ- 'to be unwell, indisposed'; And. =iʁan-, Cham. =iʁã-, Kar. =eʁ- 'to lose, be defeated'; Tsez. =eʁₙ-, Khv. iʁₙ-, Bezht. =üw- id.; Tab. k:-a=ʁ- id. PST *kjuŋ ( ~ g-, q-, G-, -o-) 'destitution, loss' > OC 窮 *guŋ 'destitution, poverty'; Tib. gjoŋ 'loss' (perhaps = *KₙVŋ 'leave, lay aside' > Tib. s-kjuŋ 'to leave behind, lay aside', Kach. məkhoŋ2 'to keep, lay aside'). PY *qoń- (~χ-) 'to lose' > Ket. qɔńbɛt6, Yug. xɔnesbɛ5 (with secondary tone); see ССЕ 263. Werner 2, 106. *=ăhwV 'to do' (HGC 37): PNC *=ăhwV(r) 'to do' > Chech. =a-, Ing. =e, Bac. =a-; Av. ha=í-, And., Cham., Tind. ih-, Akhv. g-u-, Kar. g-ah-, God. ĩh-; Tsez. =o-d-, Gin., Khv., Gunz. =uw-, Bezht. =ow-; Lak. =a-; Darg. =ir-; Lezg. iji-, Tab. aṗ- ( < *a-b-ʔ-), Rut. =aʔa-, Tsakh. h-aʔa- / h-ā-, Kryz. je-r-, Bud. si=ʔi-r-, Arch. a=a-, Ub. be- 'to do,make'; Khin. =ar 'to become (in imperat.)'; Abkh. a-w-rá, Ad., Kab. wə-, Ub. w(ə)- 'to do, make'. PST *qₙ[i]ăj 'make; divide, distribute' > OC 為 *waj 'make, do, act'; Tib. b-gji-d (fut. bgji) 'to make, do, act', (?) ji-n 'to be'; Burm. wij 'to divide, to distribute'. PY *w-ǯ- (~*b-) 'to do, make' > Ket. bɛ:ŕi4 (Kur.); Bak., Sur. bɛ:də4; South. bɛŕ4, Yug. bɛ:h, Kott. ba-paj-aŋ 'to do, make', Ar. ša-pi-te 'I make' (see ССЕ 295, Werner 1, 115). [The comparison is valid if *-ǯ- in PY is a historical suffix.] 3 *=hV 'small, young': PNC *=āhV > Chech. =aj-n, Ing. =aj, Bac. =awĩ 'light (in weight)'; Av. d-áha-b 'few' (dial. also 'small'), Cham. d-ah, Tind. d-ahar 'few'; Gin. ehe-nnu, Bezht. =üwe-rö, Gunz. =ije-ru 'small, little'; Hurr. χai-annə 'little'. PST *ɣāwH 'young' > OC 夭 *ʔāwʔ 'young, young age', Tib. -gu / -'u 'young (of animals), sign of diminutives'. With a different suffix one could also compare PST *jā-ŋ 'light (in weight); small' (Tib. jaŋ-po, Lush. zāŋ, Gurung *jàŋ 'light (in weight)', Sulung *jVŋ 'small'). PY *b-eʔjiŋ (~ w-) 'light' > Ket., Yug. bejiŋ5 (ССЕ 208, Werner 1, 120). *=ăɦwV 'face, edge': PNC *=ăɦwV 'edge, point; face' > Chech. jüħ 'face; end', =üħ-ig 'end', Ing. juħ 'face', d-uħ 'beginning', Bac. juħ- 'face' (in comp. also =ujħ-); Av. b-eʕ 'face', r-aʕál 'edge', And. lel, Kar. r-eʕil id., Cham., Botl. b-aj, Tind. b-ā, Kar., Bagv. b-aʕa 'face'; Bezht. jiʔo blade (of axe, knife); Lak. *=aj 'edge, beginning' (in =aj=iši-n 'to begin'); Darg. =aIħ 'face'. The root is also preserved in a widely used derivative *-ăɦwV-rV / *-ăɦwV-lV 'sharp' > Chech., Ing. ira, Bac. ʕirĩ Av. =eʕéra-, Akhv. =aʕa-da-, And. =ari; Bezht. (Tlad.) =iʔo-ro, Lak. =ajiI-l-; Ag. ħa-re-f 'sharp'. PST *jɨ 'face' > OC 頤 *lə 'chin', PKC *ju 'face', Kir. *jo- 'mouth; chin' etc. Bur. *-úrV / *hVrỺ > Yas. úri, Hun., Nag. -úri 'top (of mountain), comb, crest', Yas. héreṣ 'edge', Yas. heréṣum, Hunza hirúm, Nagar hirím 'sharp'. *=ălcwỺn- 'to measure' (HGC 36, WFR 139): PNC *=ălcUm 'to measure, weigh' > Chech. =ust-, Ing. =ist-, Bac. =usṭ- 'to measure'; Av. =orcn-, And. =asin-, Akhv. =ačun-, Cham. =asVn-, Tind. =asĩ-, Kar. =asan-, Bagv.,God. =asã- 'to measure'; Tsez. asa-d-, Gin. =asã-, Khv. n-as-, Bezht. =ãs-ah-, Gunz. =ãs- 'to measure, to weigh'; Lak. =uci- id.; Darg. umc-, Chir. uncVn- / unc- id.; Lezg. alcum-, Tab. je=c-, Ag. alc- (dial. alcan-), Rut. h-a=cₙa-, Kryz. w-ä=sn-, Bud. so=sn-, Arch. a=sin-, Ud. us-k:- 'to measure, to weigh'; Abkh. a-šva-rá, Abaz. šₙa-ra, Ub. sₙa- 'to measure'. PST *ch[ū]n (~ -ł) 'to cut off; a measure, to measure' > OC 寸 *chūns 'thumb, inch', 忖 *chūnʔ 'to measure, consider', 刌 *chūnʔ 'to cut, chop'; Burm. ćhunh 'to measure a distance; to cut'; Kach. cen 'an inch'. *-āλwE 'to whet, whetstone': 4 PNC *ʔāλwE > Chech. älχa, Ing. älχ, Bac. atχĕ 'whetstone'; Av. :-ux-, Cham., Tind. =āh- 'to whet'; Bezht. iλo, Gunz. ilu 'flint, flint-stone'; PL *ʔaλₙV 'to sweep' > Tsakh. s-a=xₙa-, Kryz. w-of-, Bud. w-o=x-; PWC *λə > Abkh. a--rá, Abaz. -ra 'to stroke, rub', Ad., Kab. λə- 'to whet'. Bur. *b-ál-dan 'whetstone' > Yas., Hun., Nag. bál-dan (dan 'stone'). *=áƛwVn- 'to match' (WFR 134, FDCP 3): PNC *=ăƛwVn 'to resemble, similar' > Av. réƛ:-in-, Kar. =aλ:an- 'to be similar, resemble', And. a=λ:in, Akhv. ẽλ:e-da, Cham. =aλ:una-b, Tind. =aλ:ũ-b 'similar'; Tsez. =iλa-si, Gin. =eλ-iš, Khv. =aλ, Bezht. =ẽλe-rö 'similar, alike'; Lak. la=š:a- (pr. la=x:u-nu) 'to be similar, look alike'; Darg. mešu-, Chir. miši- 'similar, alike'; Arch. λ:ₙāna-t:u- 'similar'. PST *t-lōm > OC 同 *Łōŋ 'be the same, join, unite'; Kach. lom3 'to accompany'; Lush. lōm to assist a person in any kind of work; common, belonging to more than one'. [Cf. Basq. *b-erdin 'the same, equal, even'.] *=āmśdU 'to milk, milk': PNC *=āmʒU 'to milk; to drink' > Chech. =ētt-, Ing., Bac. =ett- 'to milk'; Lak. t:-iziid.; Darg. =iz-, Dial. =irc:- / ic:- id.; Lezg., Arch. ac:a-, Tab. az-, Ag. uz-, Rut., Kryz. =äz-, Tsakh. ǵ-a=z-, Bud. s-oz- 'to milk'; PWC *zₙA 'to drink' > Abkh. á-žv-ra, Abaz. žₙ-ra, Ad. ja-sva-, Kab. ja-fa-, Ub. ʒₙa-. Cf. various derivatives: Av. dial. ʕenže-r ( = Ag. azal) 'enclosure for milking sheep', PA *zin-HV 'cow', PL *ʔac:ä-r > *c:är 'cow'. PST *[h]aw (~-ew) 'milk' > Tib. źo 'thick milk, curds', ã-o 'to milk'; Burm. ćəwʔ 'to draw out (milk from the breast), suck'; Kach. čuʔ3 'milk, breasts'; Lepcha čhu, ka-čhu 'curds, buttermilk', etc. Bur. *háo 'to milk' > Hun., Nag. háo. *=ămsṭĔ 'to know, see' (HGC 20, BCD 12): PNC *=ămĔ 'to know, see' > Chech., Ing. =ovz- 'to get to know', Bac. =ab- 'id., to know'; And. in- 'to know', Cham. =an- 'to look'; Bezht. gow-a- 'to look', Gunz. =ã- 'to see'; Darg. um- 'to search'; Rut., Tsakh. =aa-, Kryz. =ä-, Bud. ha=-, Ud. a-(ba baksun) 'to know', Ud. aje-sun 'be able, can', Arch. b-ea- id.; Abkh. a-a-rá 'to learn', PAK *-ʡa- > Ad., Kab. ṣa- (Shaps. ṣa-)'to know', *ə- > Kab. ə-xₙə- 'to be acquainted', Ub. a- 'to know'; Hurr. anz-an-uɣ- (caus.) 'to declare, to promise'. PST *siə(H) 'to know, think' > OC 思 *sə 'to think'; Tib. śe-s 'to know, perceive', 5 Burm. siʔ 'to know' (LB *sajx), Kach. ši2 'news, tidings', Lush. thei 'can, may, be able', Lepcha ší 'see', etc. PY *ʔVt- 'to know' > Ket. it-parem (КРС), (Кастр.) iet-päde, (Werner 1, 383) ít-pɛdam, inf. ítej; Yug. ít-pade (Werner 1, 383-384), see ССЕ 205, Werner 1, 383, 384, 2, 372. Cf. also Ket., Yug. utpaŋ5 'blind' ('not seeing'); t...at 'understand' (Werner 2, 224), t...et 'id., to be able' (Werner 2, 225). Bur. *-jḗc- 'to see' > Yas. -jéc-, Hun., Nag. -jeéc-. Cf. also Yas. d-si- ῾to think of'. [Cf. Basq. *encu-n 'to hear'.] *=aỺł- 'to shake' (WFR 117): PNC *=aVł > Akhv. ul- 'to slide'; Darg. Chir. d-al-(aʁ-) 'to dangle, shake'; Tab. d-a=-, Ag. da- 'to dangle, shake', Rut. a=la- 'to tremble', Kryz. ʕä=l- 'to fall', Bud. ʕa=al- 'to fall; to lie'. PST *G(h)ōl ( ~ -ual) 'to move, swing' > Tib. ãgul-ba 'to move, shake, be agitated', s-gul 'to move', Kach. goi1 'be swinging', Lush. hōl 'to flourish or wave about', Kir. *khl ( ~ *x-) 'to move, shift'. [Irregular root structure in PST.] *=arkU 'to smear': PNC *=arkV > (?) Tind. d-ekₙã- 'to stick, adhere'; Darg. =ak- 'to smear'; Tab. k-a=k- 'to smear', Ag. ald-ark-, dial. urka- 'to smear, plaster', Bud. ʕa=k- 'to get dirty'. PST *Kū 'to smear, sully' > OC 淈 *kū-t, *gū-t 'dirt, to sully'; Tib. s-ku-d (fut. b-s-ku) 'to smear, daub, anoint'. *=ărḳĔw 'to drive': PNC *=ărḳĔw > Chech., Ing. =ig-, Bac. =iḳ- 'to lead, to drive'; Akhv. ḳab- 'to drive, urge', Cham. =eḳₙ-n- 'to direct; to return'; Tsez. iḳ- 'to go, walk'; Darg. (Ur.) =irḳ-/=urḳ 'to drive, urge'; Tsakh. h-a=ḳan- 'to go', Arch. a=ḳa- 'to drive, urge'; PWC *ḳₙa- > Ad., Kab. ḳₙa-, Ub. ḳa- 'to go, walk'. PST *khjŏ (~ gh-,-w) 'to run, drive' > OC 驅 *kh(r)o, -s 'to drive (horses) forward; gallop, hasten'; Tib. d-kju 'to run a race', ã-khju (p. ãkhjus) 'to run', ãgju (p. gjus) 'to move quickly', Chepang kraw 'to run away'. *=ắ[r]λwĂ 'even' (HGC 38, DCE 31):

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