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lunes, 22 de enero de 2007
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Congreso científico sobre la Atlántida

Noticia sobre la celebración en la isla de Milos, en julio de 2005, de un congreso científico sobre la fabulosa Atlántida. Contiene la noticia inicial, miembros del comité organizador, comité científico y participantes, resúmenes de los trabajos hasta entonces presentados y algunas ilustraciones. Gran variedad de enfoques y posibles lugares. El comité ha fijado los "24 criterios" que debe cumplir una candidata a ser la perdida Atlántida. Actualizado el 16-10-2005 con la lista de esas 24 condiciones, a partir de los textos de Platón.

Noticia sobre la celebración en la isla de Milos, en el mes de julio de 2005, de un congreso científico sobre la fabulosa Atlántida. Se subió inicialmente en ese momento, y ahora (10 de agosto de 2005), pasado el paréntesis técnico de Celtiberia, se le añaden como novedad los miembros del comité organizador, comité científico y participantes, los resúmenes de los trabajos realmente presentados y algunas ilustraciones. Resulta muy interesante comprobar la variedad de enfoques sobre el problema, y las propuestas tan diversas sobre posibles lugares, lo mismo que los "24 criterios" que debe cumplir una candidata a ser la perdida Atlántida. Otra novedad, en noticia de 15-8-05: en la Isla de Espartel (véase al final). Se añade, el 16-10-2005, la lista de esas 24 condiciones. .............. Buscan restos de la Atlántida en Grecia La mítica ciudad sumergida es motivo de un congreso científico. Intentan desentrañar las claves de una leyenda narrada por Platón hace más de dos mil trescientos años. La ciencia ha decidido hacer el primer congreso internacional sobre un mito y una utopía. Eso está muy bien. Y no será el último que se haga sobre la materia. Eso está mucho mejor y habla muy bien de los científicos. En Milos, una de las más bellas islas griegas del grupo de las Cícladas, se abrió ayer el primer congreso científico internacional para analizar el mito de la Atlántida, aquella ciudad majestuosa que se hundió para siempre en el Egeo, según relató Platón. La elección de Milos dice también que los científicos no son tontos. Se han reunido a pensar si Platón decía la verdad en una isla bellísima, con el mar más azul del mundo al alcance de la mano y al amparo de los aires mediterráneos que excitan la imaginación casi tanto como el áspero vino de Creta. No está mal. Como para descargar impuestos, Spyros Pavlidis, profesor de paleosismología de la Universidad de Salónica, en el norte de Grecia, se atajó al inaugurar las sesiones. "No se trata de determinar si la Atlántida existe o es sólo un mito, ni de localizarla de una vez por todas, lo que sería muy presuntuoso para una historia de más de 2.500 años. Lo que queremos es recapitular hipótesis, examinar las fuentes de inspiración de la leyenda." La comida y bebidas mediterráneas suelen ayudar mucho y muy bien a examinar las fuentes de inspiración, como bien sabe Pavlidis, que en su disertación sobre la Atlántida clavó con la delicadeza de un cirujano el cuchillo de la duda: "Platón hablaba de una alegoría sobre la decadencia de una civilización. Pero tal vez esa alegoría tenga una pizca de verdad. La mayoría de los participantes de este congreso tienen por cierta la historia y buscan localizar la ciudad." ¿Qué dijo Platón? Que hubo una gran nación marítima, fabulosamente rica en maderas, metales y piedras preciosas, que en el reparto de bienes que hicieron los dioses le fue entregada a Poseidón, dios del mar y las tempestades. Que allí vivieron los atlantes y que todo ese reino de esplendor fue destruido por la corrupción de sus habitantes, que, además, intentaron sojuzgar a los pueblos vecinos. Fueron derrotados, cómo no, por los atenienses. Después, la Atlántida fue tragada por el mar en un cataclismo irrepetible. Mejor no hacer proyecciones. ¿Inventaba Platón, que murió en el 347 antes de Cristo? Hace tres mil quinientos años, el estallido de un volcán sepultó una isla enorme de la que quedan sólo vestigios. Claro, son vestigios de una belleza incomparable, que conocemos como la isla de Santorini: desde su capital, Fira, se ven los atardeceres más hermosos del mundo. El maremoto que desató el estallido del volcán y que hizo nacer a Santorini arrasó con la civilización cretense, la del vino áspero y seco. ¿Imaginó Platón a su Atlántida en Santorini o en alguna de las islas que quedaron sumergidas? De desentrañar esa mitología, de descifrar esa utopía se encarga el primer congreso científico sobre la Atlántida que inauguró ayer el profesor Pavlidis en Milos, una isla casi tan rica como la Atlántida que nutrió a Creta y a Atenas de la obsidiana para sus armas y herramientas. El congreso reúne a sismólogos, vulcanólogos, geólogos, geógrafos, filósofos, historiadores y arqueólogos que llegaron de los cinco continentes atraídos por el alboroto de trueno de la utopía desatada. Entre los escritos presentados en el congreso los hay con títulos transparentes, como "La búsqueda de la Atlántida, la utopía de una utopía" hasta más crípticos como "La Atlántida era Israel". No falta quien arriesgue que trabajos como este último parecen haber sido escritos bajo el influjo del áspero, y siempre traidor, vino de Creta. Fuente: Gollem, Hispamp3.com, 13 de julio de 2005 Enlace: http://www.hispamp3.com/noticias/noticia.php?noticia=20050713084942, A través de terraeantiqvae.com NOVEDADES: "CRITERIOS", ORGANIZADORES, PARTICIPANTES Y RESÚMENES Criterios que debe cumplir un “hallazgo” de la Atlántida Un centenar de científicos participan desde el lunes en un congreso internacional en Grecia sobre el mito de la Atlántida. Ellos prepararon una lista de 24 criterios que cualquier sitio emplazamiento supuesto de la ciudad mítica debe cumplir para ser creíble. "La lista excluye de entrada a la mayor parte de emplazamientos mencionados hasta ahora, en particular Santorín", la isla volcánica de las Cicladas que aparece entre los enclaves posibles en la inmensa literatura consagrado al continente sumergido, indicó a la AFP Spyros Pavlidis, profesor de paleosismología de la universidad de Salónica (norte). Casi todos los que participan en el congreso, aunque divididos entre los que creen en la veracidad de la historia de Platón, y los que, como él, piensan que es un mito, "se pusieron de acuerdo sobre esos criterios", dijo. El congreso, que se pretende el primer evento "científico", se realiza en la isla de Milo y ha reunido, además de investigadores independiente, a sismólogos, vulcanólogos o geógrafos, al lado de filósofos, historiadores y arqueólogos llegados de universidades de cinco continentes. Los investigadores de la Atlántida sólo deberán concentrarse en "una isla o en los restos de una isla", que haya acogido "une civilización desarrollada y marítima", con "una llanura costera rodeada de montañas que caen a pico en el mar", indica el geólogo griego Georges Vougioukalakis. No obstante, ningún límite geográfico, en particular en la cuenca del Mediterráneo, ha sido fijada, agregó. El inventario fue establecido "sólo con base en los escritos de Platón", precisó Stavros Papamarinopoulos, profesor de geofísica en la universidad de Patras, que cree por su lado en la historia. Los participantes se pusieron de acuerdo en la creación de un comité internacional encargado de comparar las hipótesis sobre la Atlántida con estos criterios, en la espera de la próxima reunión, en tres años, en Milo. El objetivo del congreso no es "establecer si la Atlántida existió o no, ni de localizarla de una vez por todas, lo que sería presuntuoso para una historia vieja de más de 2.500 años", sino más bien "pasar revista a las hipótesis y censar los eventuales índices confiables", explicó a la AFP Pavilidis, al inaugurarse el evento el lunes. Fuente: El Tiempo.com, Atenas/AFP, 14 de julio de 2005 Enlace: http://eltiempo.terra.com.co/cien/noticiascientificas/ARTICULO-WEB-_NOTA_INTERIOR-2146067.html Atlántida – Atlantis 2005. COMITÉ ORGANIZADOR, PROGRAMA DEL CONGRESO, LISTADOS DE AUTORES Y RESÚMENES YA PRESENTADOS (añadido el 10-8-2005). ATLANTIS: IF, WHEN AND WHERE? At the dawn of the 21st century the mystery of what was recorded by Plato in the 4th century BC as one of the most advanced civilisations of the pre-historic world remains unsolved - the Lost Land of Atlantis. According to Plato’s dialogues Timaeus and Critias, Atlantis was an island state that existed in the Atlantic Ocean opposite the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar) over 12,000 thousand years ago. It was populated by a noble and powerful race that enjoyed great wealth thanks to the natural resources and geographical layout of the island, and was therefore a significant centre for trade and commerce. The people of Atlantis lived simple and virtuous lives for many generations. As Plato records, the Atlanteans slowly began to change as Greed and Power began to corrupt them, until finally Zeus responded to their immorality with a fierce punishment – with one violent heave, the island of Atlantis, its people and its memory were swallowed by the sea. For years this story has attracted the attention and wonder of specialists in many fields and everyday people all over the world searching for clues to put together the pieces of this mysterious puzzle. Where was Atlantis really located? Was the story perhaps an exaggeration based on the fall of the Cretan civilisation and the destruction of the island Thera? When did it actually exist? What is the truth about its destruction? Did it ever exist at all or was it purely fiction that served the purposes of Plato’s descriptions of an Ideal State? Researchers and specialists from all four corners of the globe will gather on the beautiful Greek island of Milos at the “Milos Conference Centre – George Eliopoulos” to present and analyse a significant amount of new research and hypotheses that, thanks to modern technology and fresh ideas, has a great potential to wash away the centuries of mystery and produce clearer conclusions. After all, a mystery is best solved at its very source, so where better to bring together the top international Atlantis researchers than in the country where the story of Atlantis was born, in the Mediterranean Sea where many believe the lost land lies deep under thousands upon thousands of years of history. The conference will serve as the widest platform yet to deal with this hypothesis, with topics ranging from History, Archaeology and Philosophy all the way to Volcanology, Meteors and Oceanography. The actual number of places where Atlantis is believed to be located has today reached 27. And so the mystery lives on, but it seems to be only a matter of time until the truth is revealed. ORGANIZERS The conference is a Milos Conferences event. The Milos Conferences is a function of the "Milos Conference Center - George Eliopoulos", a non-profit organization, located on the island of Milos, Greece. The Milos Conferences consist of different conference series, each devoted to a general subject. The conferences are held normally every two or three years and they are open to all scientists, whether from academia or industry. For more information about Milos Conferences please click here. Information: Heliotopos Conferences Address: 28, Ypsilantou str., GR-17236, Dafni-Athens, Greece Phone: +30 210 9730697 Fax: +30 210 9767208 E-mail: conf@heliotopos.net Conference E-mail: atlantis@heliotopos.net INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE Prof. Michael FYTIKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR - Chair Prof. Silvio CATALDI, University of Torino, IT Prof. Christos DOUMAS, Greek Archaeological Society, GR Prof. Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, Univ. of Patras, GR Prof. Haraldur SIGURDSSON, University of Rhode Island, US Dr. Georges VOUGIOUKALAKIS, Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, GR Prof. Spyros PAVLIDES, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR INTERNATIONAL STEERING COMMITTEE Prof. Maria Eugenia AUBET, Univesitat Pompeu Fabra, SP Prof. Tim DRUITT, University Blaise Pascal Clermont - Ferrand, FR Prof. Lorella FRANCALANCI, University of Florence, IT Prof. Walter FRIEDRICH, University of Aarhus, DK Prof. Renato FUNICIELLO, University Rome III, IT Dr. Manolis GLEZOS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Patras, GR Prof. Alexander GORODNITSKY, Shirshovs Oceanology Inst., Academy of Sciences, RU Prof. George HOURMOUZIADES, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR Prof. Fabrizio INNOCENTI, University of Pisa, IT Prof. Piero MANETTI, University of Florence, IT Prof. Nano MARINATOU, Arcaelogist, GR Prof. Pavlos MARINOS, National Technical University of Athens, GR Prof. Ilias D. MARIOLAKOS, University of Athens, GR Prof. Manolis MIKROGIANNAKIS, University of Athens, GR Prof. Amos NUR, University of Stanford, US Prof. Vassilios PAPAZACHOS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR Prof. Giorgio PASQUARÉ, University of Milan, IT Prof. Yilmaz SAVASCIN, Dokuz Elul University, TU Prof. Sandro SBRANA, University of Pise, IT Prof. Steve SPARKS, University of Bristol, UK Dr. George STAVRAKAKIS, Inst. of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, GR Prof. Efstathios STIROS, University of Patras, GR Dr. Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, NO Prof. Filippos VALLIANATOS, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, GR Prof. Yotzo YANEV, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BU LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Michael FYTIKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR Athanasios KEFALAS, S&B Industrial Mining S.A. Kostas KONSTANTINIDIS, Heliotopos Conferences Rena KOUMANTOU, S&B Industrial Mining S.A. Barbara BARAKOU, Heliotopos Conferences Emmanuel J. VOULGARIS, Milos Conference Center - George Eliopoulos – Chair List of Submitted Abstracts (as per 16-05-2005) "Burckle Abyssal Impact Crater: Did this Impact Produce a Global Deluge?" Dallas ABBOTT and L. BURCKLE, Columbia University, USA W. B. MASSE, Los Alamos National Observatory, USA D. BREGER, Drexel University, USA "Mythical Aspects of Plato's Atlantis" Alan ALFORD, Independant, U.K "A Stone Code From Zambales Mountain Range: A Link To The Atlantean Myth" Ronnie ALONZO, Keystone Research, Philippines "The Phoenician Connection" Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Continental sized sunken island or not?" Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Atlantis in Morocco" Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Valbruna the Atlantis of the Adriatic" Annamaria CAPICCHIONI, Scuola Superiore Rep San Marino, Italy "The Geology of Gibraltar Strait and the Myth of Atlantis" Jacques COLLINA-GIRARD, University Aix-Marseille I, France "Scientific Atlantology. Atlantis in Gibraltar, between Iberia and Morocco. The only possible location of Atlantis." Georgeos DIAZ-MONTEXANO, Scientific Atlantology International Society (S.A.I.S.) and Sociedad epigráfica de España (S.E.E.), Spain "Scientific Atlantology. New proofs locates the origin of the story of Atlantis in time previous to Plato." Georgeos DIAZ-MONTEXANO, Scientific Atlantology International Society (S.A.I.S.) and Sociedad epigráfica de España (S.E.E.), Spain "Scientific Atlantology. The Plato's Atlantis, an historical-geographic and mythological description of Iberia and Morocco." Georgeos DIAZ-MONTEXANO, Scientific Atlantology International Society (S.A.I.S.) and Sociedad epigráfica de España (S.E.E.), Spain "The Search for Atlantis - The Utopia of a Utopia." Christos DOUMAS, Greek Archaeological Society, Greece "Global tsunami database as a possible source of data for verification of the Atlantis hypothesis" Viatcheslav GUSIAKOV, Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Russia "The destruction of Atlantis by a great earthquake and tsunami? A geological analysis of the Spartel Bank hypothesis " Marc-Andre GUTSCHER, IUEM - University of Brest, France "A quick subsidence of a crustal block in SW Aegean Sea as a possible cause of the end of ancient civilization in 17th century BC" L. EPPELBAUM, Tel Aviv University, Israel A. PILCHIN, Universal Geoscience & Environmental Consulting Company, Canada "A Geographic Comparison of Plato's Atlantis and Ireland as a Test of the Megalithic Culture Hypothesis" Ulf ERLINGSSON, Geologist, USA "The Minoan eruption revisited: Implications for the Atlantis hypothesis" Gerald G.J. ERNST, University of Ghent, Belgium "The Geography of Atlantis:Neither Allegorical Nor Exaggerated" Rand FLEM-ATH, International Best Selling Author, Canada "The Santorini Volcano: Geology and Atlantis Mythos" Walter FRIEDRICH, University of Aarhus, Denmark "Old and New Tools and Approaches in the Search of the Lost Land" Michael FYTIKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece and George VOUGIOUKALAKIS, Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Greece "The Topos of Atlantis: Some Philosophical Insights" Amihud GILEAD, University of Haifa, Israel "Results of Russian Expeditions in Azoro-Gibraltar Tectonic Zone and Various Geophysical Model Atlantis Destruction" Alexander GORODNITSKY, Shirshovs Oceanology Inst., Academy of Sciences, Russia "The Straits of Gibraltar and the geographical place of Plato’s Atlantis through ancient exoceanic periplus" Cesar GUARDE-PAZ, AGON, Grupo de Estudios Filosoficos, Spain "The Disc of Phaistos. An Object relating Sicily, Crete and the Island of Santorini" Axel HAUSMANN, Technical University of Aachen, Germany "Atlantis - extincted on the Plateau of Malta An ancient civilization at the transition from Neolithics to the Bronce Age" Axel HAUSMANN, Technical University of Aachen, Germany "Was Atlantis a Bronze Age Metropolis in Northafrica?" Ulrich HOFMANN, Indepentent Researcher, Germany "The Tantalis Legend - Core Source for Plato's Atlantis" Peter JAMES, Independent Scholar, UK "Archaeological thought, narratives and the excavations of the Prehistoric site of Akrotiri, Thera" Lilian KARALI, University of Athens, Greece "The Origin of the Atlantis Civilization through Tamil literary evidence" P. KARTHIGAYAN, Tuberculosis Research Centre (ICMR), India The Cyclades Plateau (Aegean Sea): a lost “Atlantis” Vasilios KAPSIMALIS, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece "Helike and mythical Atlantis. An illuminating comparison" Dora KATSONOPOULOU, The Helike Project, Greece "Atlantis: Review of Some Little Known References" Anthony KONTARATOS, Independent, Greece "The Unsolved Mystery of Atlantis" Sitharamamurty KOTTAPALLI, International Commission of History of Geological Sciences, India "Plato's Atlantis Tale III: Geographical Elements" Rainer KUEHNE, Individual Researcher, Germany "Palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Aegean. Was Atlantis on the doorstep of Athens?" Kurt LAMBECK, The Australian National University, Australia "Plato´s Later Works and the Atlantis Report" Doris MANNER, Independent, Germany "Atlantis was Israel" Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "Plato’s geographical errors" Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "The sea sank" Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "Reconstructing a lost island - A preliminary deciption of Thera (Santorini) before the Late Bronze Age Eruption" Floyd W. MCCOY, University of Hawaii, USA "Remote Sensing and the Search for Atlantis" Angela MICOL, Satellite Discoveries, USA "Traces of the lost Atlantis land at the Balkan Peninsula" Dragan MILOVANOVIC, Faculty of Mining and Geology Serbia & Monte Negro "Atlantis: Plato’s Memories of the Aegean Culture" Mario NEGRI, IULM-Istituto di Linguistica Generale e Applicata, Italy "Linking Myth, Religion, Philosophy of Science, and Geology – The Atlantis Example" Amos NUR, Stanford University, USA "The riddle of the Sea Peoples. A synopsis of the hard facts" Diamantis PANAGIOTOPOULOS, University of Heidelberg, Germany "Dating the catastrophe of pre-historic Athens. Evidence from Plato's Critias" Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "Platon's Phaeton and Homer's Phaethousa. Cometary Fragments in the 12th century B.C" Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "Atlantis - The Lost Land Hypothesis and the Cataclysmic Mass Edifice Failure of the Volcano of Santorini in the Bronze Age." George PARARAS-CARAYANNIS, Retired Director International Tsunami Information Center (UNESCO - Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission), USA "The Atlantis Story and Platonic Mimesis" Theopi PARISAKI, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece "What say the Greek Writers about Atlantis - A new map of Atlantis" Theodoros PASCHOS, The Museum of Atlantis, Greece "Atlantis in Greek Mythology" Theodoros PASCHOS, The Museum of Atlantis, Greece "Final Solution to the question of Atlantis" Diamantis PASTRAS, Aten, Australia "Interpreting Myths; Catastrophism and New Catastrophism" Spyros B. PAVLIDES and Alexandros CHATZIPETROS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Greece "The Search for Atlantis: Ice Cores & Mammoths" Monique PETERSEN, Independent, USA "Plato´s Atlantis was in a River Delta. New insights taken from studying the Timaeus and Critias" Ulf RICHTER, formerly: Dynamit Nobel AG, Germany "The Novelty of the Atlantis Myth in the Light of Freudian Interpretation" Yair SCHLEIN, Open University, Israel "Atlantis in the Black Sea" Siegfried G. SCHOPPE, University of Hamburg, Germany Christian M. SCHOPPE, MBA "The Deucalion Catastroph" Emilio SPEDICATO, University of Bergamo, Italy "Atlantis in Quisqueya" Emilio SPEDICATO, University of Bergamo, Italy] "An archaeological concept about the mythical conflict between Atlantis and Prehistoric Athenians" Fotis TSAKOPOULOS, University of Athens, Greece "A new geophysical interpretation of the Platonic multi-ringed concentric morphology of Atlantis capitol based on numerical simulations" Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, Norway V. V. SHUVALOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "The origin of the multi-ringed concentric morphology of Atlantis capitol and its relations to the Platonic scripts " Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, Norway Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece V. V. SHUVALOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia "Sea Routes in the Bronze Age Aegean" Irene TZACHILI, University of Crete, Greece "Atlantis in the Eyes of a Greek" Vivi VASSILOPOULOU, Ministry of Culture, Greece "11,500 years ago" Rosario VIENI, Former High School History Professor, Italy "The new cultural complex of Atlantis in the norhtern Atalntic and Mediterranean" Alexandr VORONIN, RSLAP, Russia "Nepture (Poteidaon). Platon. Atlantis" Michael VRACHOPOULOS, Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, Greece "Locating the capital of Atlantis by strict observation of the text by Plato." Werner WICKBOLDT, Independant, Germany "Intermediary Embedded Synonymy, Integrated Ambiguous Homonymy, and the Egyptian Hieroglyphic Inspiration for the Atlantis Story" Erick WRIGHT, Independent Researcher, USA "Constraints on the search for Atlantis " Timothy WYATT, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Spain LIST OF ABSTRACTS (as per 01-07-2005) This list contains the abstracts of authors who have already registered and confirmed their place in the conference. Each week 10 randomly selected abstracts will be available on the website. To view, click on the "Abstracts of the Week". Dallas ABBOTT and L. BURCKLE, Columbia University, USA W. B. MASSE, Los Alamos National Observatory, USA D. BREGER, Drexel University, USA "Burckle Abyssal Impact Crater: Did this Impact Produce a Global Deluge?" Ronnie ALONZO, Keystone Research, Philippines "A Stone Code From Zambales Mountain Range: A Link To The Atlantean Myth" Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "The Phoenician Connection" Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Continental sized sunken island or not?" Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Atlantis in Morocco" Jacques COLLINA-GIRARD, University Aix-Marseille I, France "The Geology of Gibraltar Strait and the Myth of Atlantis" Chara COSEYAN, University of Patras, Greece "Ritual Capture and Sacrifice of the Bull at Atlantis. Are there any parallels? Christos DOUMAS, Greek Archaeological Society, Greece "The Search for Atlantis - The Utopia of a Utopia" Niki DRIVALIARI, University of the Aegean, Greece "Erytheia as 'Atlantis'. A case prior to Plato" Ulf ERLINGSSON, Geologist, USA "A Geographic Comparison of Plato's Atlantis and Ireland as a Test of the Megalithic Culture Hypothesis" Walter FRIEDRICH, University of Aarhus, Denmark "The Santorini Volcano: Geology and Atlantis Mythos" Amihud GILEAD, University of Haifa, Israel "The Topos of Atlantis: Some Philosophical Insights" Marc-Andre GUTSCHER, IUEM - University of Brest, France "The destruction of Atlantis by a great earthquake and tsunami? A geological analysis of the Spartel Bank hypothesis " Axel HAUSMANN, Technical University of Aachen, Germany "The Disc of Phaistos - An object relating Sicily, Crete and the Island of Santorini" Axel HAUSMANN, Technical University of Aachen, Germany "Atlantis - extincted on the Plateau of Malta. An ancient civilisation at the transition from Neolithics to the Bronze Age" Ulrich HOFMANN, Indepentent Researcher, Germany "Was Atlantis a Bronze Age Metropolis in Northafrica?" Vasilios KAPSIMALIS, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece "The Cyclades Plateau (Aegean Sea): a lost Atlantis" P. KARTHIGAYAN, Tuberculosis Research Centre (ICMR), India "The Origin of the Atlantis Civilization through Tamil literary evidences" Dora KATSONOPOULOU, The Helike Project, Greece "Helike and mythical Atlantis. An illuminating comparison" Anthony KONTARATOS, Independent, Greece "Atlantis: Review of Some Little Known References" Anthony KONTARATOS, Independent, Greece "On the Atlantis-Thera Connection. Selected Bibliography" Anthony KONTARATOS, Independent, Greece "Atlantis - Fact or Fiction?" Zdenek KUKAL, Czech Geological Survey, Czech Republic "Atlantis Problem - Never Ending Conflict between Science & Fiction" Kurt LAMBECK, The Australian National University, Australia "Palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Aegean. Was Atlantis on the doorstep of Athens?" Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "Atlantis was Israel" Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "Plato’s geographical errors" Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "The sea sank" Floyd W. MCCOY, University of Hawaii, USA "Reconstructing a lost island - A preliminary deciption of Thera (Santorini) before the Late Bronze Age Eruption" Erika NOTTI, IULM-Istituto di Linguistica Generale e Applicata, Italy "Atlantis: Plato's Memories of the Aegean Culture" Diamantis PANAGIOTOPOULOS, University of Heidelberg, Germany "The riddle of the Sea Peoples. A synopsis of the hard facts" Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "Dating the catastrophe of pre-historic Athens. Evidence from Plato's Critias" Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "Platon's Phaeton and Homer's Phaethousa. Cometary Fragments in the 12th century B.C" Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "The Differences between Myth & Fiction and Myth & Fact Theopi PARISAKI, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece "The Atlantis Story and Platonic Mimesis" Diamantis PASTRAS, Aten, Australia "Final solution to the question of Atlantis" Spyros B. PAVLIDES and Alexandros CHATZIPETROS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Greece "Interpreting Myths; Catastrophism and New Catastrophism" Monique PETERSEN, Independent, USA "The Search for Atlantis: Ice Cores & Mammoths" Ulf RICHTER, formerly: Dynamit Nobel AG, Germany "Plato´s Atlantis was in a River Delta. New insights taken from studying the Timaeus and Critias" Yair SCHLEIN, Open University, Israel "The Novelty of the Atlantis Myth in the Light of Freudian Interpretation" Siegfried G. SCHOPPE, University of Hamburg, Germany "Atlantis in the Black Sea" Emilio SPEDICATO, University of Bergamo, Italy "The Deucalion Catastrophe" Emilio SPEDICATO, University of Bergamo, Italy "Atlantis in Quisqueya" Fotis TSAKOPOULOS, University of Athens, Greece "An archaeological concept about the mythical conflict between Atlantis and Prehistoric Athenians" Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, Norway V. V. SHUVALOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "A new geophysical interpretation of the Platonic multi-ringed concentric morphology of Atlantis capitol based on numerical simulations" Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, Norway Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "The origin of the multi-ringed concentric morphology of Atlantis capitol and its relations to the Platonic scripts " Vivi VASSILOPOULOU, Ministry of Culture, Greece "Atlantis in the Eyes of a Greek" Rosario VIENI, Former High School History Professor, Italy "11,500 years ago" George VOUGIOUKALAKIS, Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Greece Michael FYTIKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece "The Minoan Eruption of the Santorini Volcano and the Atlantis Hypothesis" Werner WICKBOLDT, Independant, Germany "Locating the capital of Atlantis by strict observation of the text by Plato." Erick WRIGHT, Independent Researcher, USA "Intermediary Embedded Synonymy, Integrated Ambiguous Homonymy, and the Egyptian Hieroglyphic Inspiration for the Atlantis Story" Timothy WYATT, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Spain "Constraints on the search for Atlantis" LIST OF AUTHORS (as per 01-07-2005) This list contains authors whose papers have been accepted but who have not yet registered for the conference. Alan ALFORD, Independant, U.K Annamaria CAPICCHIONI, Scuola Superiore Rep San Marino, Italy Georgeos DIAZ-MONTEXANO, Scientific Atlantology International Society (S.A.I.S.) and Sociedad epigráfica de España (S.E.E.), Spain L. EPPELBAUM, Tel Aviv University, Israel Gerald G.J. ERNST, University of Ghent, Belgium Rand FLEM-ATH, International Best Selling Author, Canada Cesar GUARDE-PAZ, AGON, Grupo de Estudios Filosoficos, Spain Viatcheslav GUSIAKOV, Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Russia Peter JAMES, Independent Scholar, UK Lilian KARALI, University of Athens, Greece Sitharama murty KOTTAPALLI, International Commission of History of Geological Sciences, India Rainer KUEHNE, Individual Researcher, Germany Angela MICOL, Satellite Discoveries, USA Dragan MILOVANOVIC, Faculty of Mining and Geology Serbia & Monte Negro Amos NUR, Stanford University, USA George PARARAS-CARAYANNIS, Retired Director International Tsunami Information Center (UNESCO - Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission), USA Theodoros PASCHOS, The Museum of Atlantis, Greece Irene TZACHILI, University of Crete, Greece Alexandr VORONIN, RSLAP, Russia Michael VRACHOPOULOS, Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, Greece ………………… Each week 10 randomly selected abstracts will be available on the website. Below are the abstracts that have been uploaded so far. To view the abstracts of this week, please go to the Authors page and click on "Abstracts of the Week". Amihud GILEAD, University of Haifa, Israel "The Topos of Atlantis: Some Philosophical Insights" At the beginning of "Critias", Timaeus mentions a feeling of “the relief of the traveler who can rest after a long journey” (St. 106a). Yet the dialectical journey in the "Republic" and other Platonic dialogues does not come to its end. To end such a journey means to become wise, which is beyond any human capability; it is rather the capability of the gods. As lovers of wisdom, all the interlocutors at Plato’s dialogue are doomed to travel in an endless journey, which no rest can terminate. "Critias" is a dialogue with no end; it is endless even more than any aporetic dialogue, whose end is not the termination of its journey. What is the deep connection between this sort of end and the myth of Atlantis? It has to do with the main insight that I’ll discuss at my presentation, namely, that Atlantis is atopos, not only as a utopia, but in the strict Platonic sense of it. The Ideas are supposed to be at a topos-a-topos, whereas anything below them in the ontic scale has a topos. At the lowest step of the scale one meets the eikasia, to which all images belong, one of which is any myth, especially that of Atlantis. Yet, in the place of Atlantis one cannot find it but only an open sea. This makes one of the Platonic strongest symbol for the dialectical-philosophical journey that has no end and does not terminate in rest. In a way Atlantis myth represents Plato’s dramatic writing (which I discuss in a book of mine*): anything at the scale below the Ideas is an image, a representation of something higher. The philosopher’s endless journey toward the Ideas consists of eikasia, for each grade of the ontic scale is an image of the higher grade. The topos of the Atlantis myth is, therefore, its distance from the aspired end of the journey. Any Platonic achievement, especially in writing, has such a topos, which is an indispensable part of reality, although never the really real itself. Kurt LAMBECK & Anthony Purcell, The Australian National University, Australia "Palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Aegean. Was Atlantis on the doorstep of Athens?" Sea level has oscillated significantly during glacial cycles but because of the earth’s deformational and gravitational response to the changing ice sheets this change exhibits a complex spatial and temporal pattern. The major changes occurred from the onset of the last deglaciation until about 6000 years ago when globally sea levels first approached their present levels. Changes in the eastern Mediterranean, for example, differed from changes in the Baltic Sea as well as from changes in south-east Asia (1). Even within each region the rates and magnitudes of change vary by significant amounts because of the Earth’s response to the changing ice and water load as ice sheets melt and ocean volumes increase. In the Aegean, for example, the sea level rise varied from Thrace to Crete and from Milos to Rhodes (2). In many tectonically stable parts of the world’s coastlines these changes have been documented in the geological and archaeological records and when this is combined with geophysical theory of the Earth’s response, accurate predictive models of sea level change and shoreline evolution can be developed. Such models have been developed for many parts of the world, including the Aegean (2) and the straits from the Aegean to the Black Sea. At the time of the Last Glacial Maximum much of the area of now-shallow waters were exposed. In particular, the Cycladean group of islands formed an extensive land area extending north-south from Andros to Ios over a distance of ~ 160 km and with a maximum east-west extent of ~ 85 km. Milos remained separated from this ‘Super Cycladea’ but the separation was much reduced and could be crossed without loosing sight of land, both where one came from and where one was going to. The separation from the Greek mainland, between Andros and Evvoia, was also small. Initially this geography changed only slowly as the ice sheets began to melt and the earth began to respond to the changing surface loads. By 14,000 years ago the coastal geometry had changed only little but after this the rise in sea level was more rapid and the single island began to break up into two parts separated by a shallow sea. By about 10,000 years ago, the break-up became more substantial and the geography began to resemble its present configuration: the originally extensive, relatively flat and low-lying plain progressively reduced to a few rocky islands over a period of about 6000 years. This evolution continued into more recent time, albeit at a much reduced rate, and in Early Bronze age sea levels here were as much as 5m lower than today. Can a collective long-term memory of this break up of Super Cycladea be the source of Plato’s Atlantis? The timing of the break-up and the description of the island is not at variance with Plato’s account but its veracity requires long preservation of mythologies. Flood myths from other parts of the world come from areas that were subject to similar rapid shoreline migrations where coastal communities were continually disrupted by the rising sea. Does the Sumerian Flood legend have its origins in the flooding of the Persian Gulf that occurred until about 6000 years ago (3,4). Does the remarkable similarity of the Irish Sea between the description in the Mabinogion and model reconstructions also reflect a distant memory? Siegfried G. SCHOPPE & Christian Schoppe, University of Hamburg, Germany "Atlantis in the Black Sea" Until around 5500 BC the Black Sea was a (smaller) freshwater-lake. The breaking Bosporus sill led to a flood commonly referred to as Noah’s Flood (Pitman/Ryan). Although heavily attacked, just recently this theory has gained support from new studies. We propose that Atlantis was an early neolithic settlement at the former shoreline of that lake. With regard to the interactions between the Atlanteans and the ancestor peoples of Athens and Egypt we propose that the saga refers to a war between Europe and Small Asia (Anatolia) where the peoples of Athens and Egypt with their equivalent gods Athene and Neith were located. The war was initiated over the Obsidian stone (Oreichalcos) which was the equivalent of money at that time and which was found in the Carpathian Mountains (Atlantis), on Milos (Tyrrhenia) and in Anatolia. As far as archaeology is concerned, the year 5500 BC marks the rise of the Vinca culture on the Balkans with their Old European Writing (sic!) and the Neolithic Diaspora in Europe. The first settlers reached Egypt at 5500 BC, and we follow the theory of Robert Schoch that the Sphinx dates back as far as 5000 BC. Finally, we were able to exactly locate the former ten kingdoms of Atlantis due to the meaning of the words accompanied by a stunning similarity in sound. We suppose that the Pillars of Herakles are equal to the Bosporus for several reasons. Further, in our opinion the Marmara Sea equals the haven with a narrow entrance. Ulf RICHTER, Independent, Germany "Plato´s Atlantis was in a River Delta. New insights taken from studying the Timaeus and Critias" Reading Plato´s two books about Atlantis and comparing the described facts with modern knowledge about geology, tectonics, archaeology and technology gives us new insights about how Atlantis had looked. This is necessary before we can look for its proper location. We know that around the Royal City of Atlantis was an absolutely flat and even plain, irrigated by a widely branched system of canals which drain into the sea. This plain was mainly formed by alluvial land in a large river delta. To feed such a delta, the area of the whole country must have been at least 10 times as large as the plain. There must have been a chain of high sand dunes along the shore. The hill with the central temple was formed by tectonic forces during the uplifting of a salt dome. The 3 circular ditches were formed by natural erosion, and the two fountains on the central islands brought water from the distant mountains. For the irrigation of the fertile alluvial plain a central organisation was necessary which led to the formation of the high culture of Atlantis, as it was the case in most other early cultures in the world. The canals in the alluvial plain were V-shaped. The excavated silt was used to build dams on both sides to protect the fields against flooding by the tides and from the mountains. The reported depth of the canals shows that Plato´s “stades” must be translated as Egyptian length units “Khet” (1 khet = 52,4 m), and so we get realistic dimensions for the plain (length 157 km, width 105 km) and the Royal City (diameter 6,6 km). Tables show the dimensions of Atlantis in comparison with buildings and canals in antique and modern times. Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, Norway Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece V. V. SHUVALOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia "A new geophysical interpretation of the Platonic multi-ringed concentric morphology of Atlantis capitol based on numerical simulations" The most characteristic geomorphologic feature of the capitol of Atlantis, as described by Plato in the 4th century B.C. based on information given by the Egyptian priesthood in the 6th century B.C. to the Athenian Solon, was the existence of concentric multi-rings surrounding an elevated central region. The multi-ring morphology included three elevated rings of land segregated by equivalent number of troughs filled with water (e.g. Kabanakis, 1996). The origin of the Atlantis characteristic geomorphology has been until now vied as related to volcanic concentric crater (e.g. Fouque, 1869, 1879; Marinatos, 1939; Galanopoulos, 1960), and may alternatively considered as possibly related to processes of salt/evaporate-deposits withdrawal and diapirism and to mud-volcano or clay-diapirism. We now propose, based on an idea of one of us (Papamarinopoulos, 2001) who refuted the equation Santorini=Atlantis by proposing an alternative non-volcanic mechanism for the origin of the multi-ringed feature described by Plato, that there is a more profound connection of Atlantis multi-ring morphology to meteorite impact-related processes. We have used the SOVA multi-material hydrocode (Shuvalov, 1999; Shuvalov, 2002; Shuvalov et al., 2002) to model numerically the cratering and early modification stages of a possible meteorite impact. The best results were obtained using a three-layer target with a composite strength structure composed, from top to bottom, of: 1) a few hundred meters in thickness of material properties approximating a siliciclastic sedimentary layer (dry friction of 0.7 and cohesion of 1MPa), 2) a few hundred meters in thickness of a low strength layer resembling salt/evapotite or clay deposits (zero friction and cohesion of 1MPa), and 3) an increased strength layer of either greatly compacted sediments or basement (dry friction of 0.7 and cohesion of 1MPa). The impact was simulated by a 400-m-diameter stony meteorite projectile impacting vertically at a typical velocity of 17 km/s. The ANEOS equation of state has been employed to model the thermo-dynamical properties of the materials. Simulations were performed both for onshore/coastal target environment and for targets with a shallow water cover, ~10-50 m, on top. The numerical simulations clearly show that multi-ring features are possible at this scale for specific layered targets. In particular, a central peak feature with a diameter of 0.9-1 km is simulated, surrounded by multiple rings and troughs that indicate an intense central deformation within a 6-8 km diameter. Depending on the properties of the upper 1-2-km-thickness target and the presence of water, the simulations have shown that subdued outer deformation may reach a diameter of 22-24 km. The developed shock compression pressure reached during impact has exceeded the melting shock pressure for the target materials and therefore melts were produced. Furthermore, modelling has shown that the impact-induced temperature increase within the upper 1-km-thickeness target has reached >250 degrees (C) and concentrated within the central peak of the structure. The increase in temperature is capable to initiate a hydrothermal system lasting for a maximum duration of approximately 10,000 yrs; thermal exhaustion may actually be much faster due to water circulation at the hydrothermal system itself. The simulations for the capitol of Atlantis produce a structure that is comparable (keeping in mind the differences in absolute dimensions and impact-energy release) with well preserved central-peak and peak-ring craters (e.g. Mjølnir Crater, Tsikalas et al. 1998a-c, 1999, 2002a-b; and Silverpit Structure, Stewart and Allen, 2002). An additional final feature that might be included in the simulations is the occurrence of concentric erosive/resurge gullies similar to those observed at several impact craters (e.g. Tsikalas and Faleide, 2004; von Dalwigk and Ormö, 2001) that may possibly result due to a shallow-water cover on top of the target and/or facilitated by pre-existing fracture systems. Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "The Phoenician Connection" Atlantis was, according to Plato, located outside the Pillars of Heracles ( the straits of Gibraltar ) ( Tim. 24e ). The first born child of the Atlantean god Poseidon was named Atlas and received the island of Atlantis as his lot. The second born child was named Gadeirus, and received as his lot the country facing Gadeira ( Crit. 114b ), an ancient Phoenician town and region in southern Spain. According to Plato, this fact may have given the region its title “Gadeira or Gadir”. The question now remains: Was Atlantis an ancient Phoenician colony? I will show that Plato’s descriptions of the Atlantean civilization strongly reminds you of the early Phoenician/Tyrian colonies in the west, and that the Tyrian god Melqart is identical to the Atlantean Poseidon, both of them founders of Gadeira. List of common traits: - Sacred fire - Sacred springs - Copper/bronze/brass pillars with inscriptions in the temple - A god representing the power of the monarchy - A god associated with fertility and the sea - Foundation of cities attributed to the god - Bull sacrifice to the god - Security offered by the god in his temple - Mutual relations regulated by the god in his temple - Strong oaths binding cities/colonies to each other - Location of cities in the Atlantic - Position of cities on hills in river deltas - The temple of the god preceding the actual city - The god was the founder of Gadeira/Gadir Werner WICKBOLDT, Independant, Germany "Locating the capital of Atlantis by strict observation of the text by Plato." The examination of the term „nesos/ island“ in Egyptian and Greek language indicates that „nesos Atlantis“ must not be an island but it even may be a coastal area. It is looked along the western coast of Europe and Africa for a landscape that fulfils the report of Plato. The only landscape that is satisfying is found inside the mouth of the river Guadalquivir. The area that is considered is destinated by maps created in search of the settlement of Tartessos by Prof. Schulten in the 1920th. Schulten refers to ancient writers using the term „nesos“ in connection to the Nile, Indus, Tiber and Tartessos. Will „nesos Tartessos“ be equal to „nesos Atlantis“? The possible territory is a part of the valley flat of the Marisma de Hinojos inside the Parque National Coto de Donana. To go there is not permitted. Therefore a satellit view is ordered. Two circular arcs crossing the banks of a river are detected. Near to the center of them two rectangle are to be seen. One of them seems to be the temple of Atlantis with the proportions length/width = 2/ 1. Encouraged by this further parts of circular arcs are detected concentrically to the same center. Completed out to a system of circles it corresponds to the description of Plato´s center of Atlantis. Further on the canal of Atlantis running to the sea may be identified by a line of lakes. It´s length even corresponds to the desription of Plato´s canal from the center to the sea. The outlined structures correspond in their positions and dimensions to the description of the capital of Atlantis. This has been worked out theoretically but has to be testified by archaeological excavation before you may say: Atlantis is discovered. Ronnie ALONZO, Keystone Research, Philippines Joel Quines, Keystone Research, Italy "A Stone Code From Zambales Mountain Range: A Link To The Atlantean Myth" A stone code found in Zambales Mountains in 1985 shows the location of the lost island of Atlantis. The lines on the artifact when plotted in a world stress map being developed by USGS falls along the compression and spreading centers around the globe thereby giving impression that these represents the "force" that reshapes the surface of the earth and creating geological stress around the entire planet. The attributed location of Atlantis discovered on the overlying surface of the stone map when projected in a dynamic earth map using Coreldraw process falls along the geographical locations of Iceland, the British Isles, Madeira, Azores and the Canary Islands. These islands have stories recounting their ancestors descending from a mighty race that inhabited an island in the Atlantic believed to be the legendary Atlantis. Recent discoveries on both sides of the Atlantic revealing submerged structures like walls, buildings, pyramids, roads and sometimes outline of a complex urban development is a clear proof of Atlantis-an island that was destroyed by natural forces and finally resting at the bottom of the oceanfloor 11,000 years ago after a world-wide catastrophe. This paper analyzes data from seismology, oceanography, underwater and satellite photography during the 17-year study period and comparing them with information from the stone map resulting to a hypothesis presented herein. The analysis shows that the Atlantis figure in the stone map is in the same geographical location as described by Plato in Critias and Timaeus thereby also giving credence to the cartographic sketch of Atlantis drawn by Athanasius Kircher in 1665. Yair SCHLEIN, Open University, Israel "The Novelty of the Atlantis Myth in the Light of Freudian Interpretation" A corner stone in Platonic political philosophy is a mythical perception of the Polis as an organic being that has an inevitable natural course of deterioration. Plato illustrated this process in the comparison between the contemporary and the utopic Athens as portrayed in the myth of Atlantis. The Atlantis myth illustrates the Ideal regime and serves as a starting point to the description of the state "pathology", that is to say, the degeneration process of the state that differs from the "physiology" of state that depicts the political structure in a given time. In other words, the myth expresses the inherent causes for the deterioration of the polis. Freud too, in his book "Civilization and its Discontents", described society as a self-destructive. The analogous perceptions of the life of an individual to the structure of the state, and the similar characteristics Plato and Freud attributed to the state are surprising. In order to discuss these similarities it is necessary to point out the outstanding and unique characteristics that particularly at his time distinguished the Platonic myth. For example, although the nostalgic attitude to the Ideal Past is common to the myth of Atlantis and the Hesiodic Myth of races and other political myths of his time, the Platonic political thought culminates in the unique idea of the state's structure. This structure is an expresses of the ideal relations that ought to exist between the state and the individual. Dallas ABBOTT and L. BURCKLE, Columbia University, USA W. B. MASSE, Los Alamos National Observatory, USA D. BREGER, Drexel University, USA "Burckle Abyssal Impact Crater: Did this Impact Produce a Global Deluge?" We have found an impact crater that is likely < 6000 years old. Burckle crater is in the central Indian Ocean at 30.87° S 61.36°E. The crater is 31±1 km wide. The crater is deepest SE of its center. There is a deep gouge in the surface topography to the SE and a topographically smooth area NW of the crater rim. These topographic features suggest that the impactor came from the SE and that the tektite field lies NW of the crater rim. We are looking for tektites in young abyssal sediments from NW of the crater. Because the impactor hit a fracture zone wall, the rim of Burckle crater is unusually well defined. The crater rim shows evenly spaced notches that we interpret as resurge gullies. Near Burckle crater, we found a 26 cm thick layer with high magnetic susceptibility that extends to the top of core DODO132P. DODO132P has a basal age of Pleistocene. The high susceptibility layer contains numerous Mn oxide coated rock fragments, as expected for an ejecta layer from an impact that fragmented a fracture zone wall. These fragments do not resemble typical Mn nodules. We also found clear fragments of mid-ocean ridge type plagioclase and a 200 micron wide grain of native Ni. The Ni is clearly a fragment of the impactor as it has an ablation rind of NiO that forms drops on the surface of the grain. The Ni contains no significant Fe and we interpret it as a piece of a comet. Burckle crater impact event is in the right location to be the source of devastating rains, tsunamis, winds, and associated social upheaval around 2807 B.C. Erick WRIGHT, Independent Researcher, USA "Intermediary Embedded Synonymy, Integrated Ambiguous Homonymy, and the Egyptian Hieroglyphic Inspiration for the Atlantis Story" Introduction Critias asserted that Solon brought the Atlantis story back from Egypt and that he derived the Greek character names by translating the meanings of the names inscribed in the Egyptian hieroglyphic records. No academic scholar has ever attempted to determine if Critias’ assertion would actually yield any information regarding the origins of the story. My research examined: a. Meanings of character names b. Synonymous words in Egyptian hieroglyphic language c. Whether synonymous words yielded clues as to story’s origin Procedure 1. Examined etymological roots of character names and found true sense of names in Greek. 2. Translated senses of names by finding synonymous words in Egyptian hieroglyphic language. Results Synonymous words yielded no clues themselves; however, I observed that homonyms of synonymous words yielded very interesting results. Example 1: Cleito means “renowned,” which translates as ab. Meanings of ab homonyms include: To face some enemy Ivory Elephant To sink Example 2: Leucippe means “white horse,” which translates as hetch ses. Meanings of hetch ses homonyms include: Chapel (of) Rameses III To filch from Rameses III To block (of a road) White stone Further experimentation determined that all fourteen names exhibited correlations to Mortuary Chapel of Rameses III and yielded details of Atlantis story. Discussion Research is on-going and no conclusions have yet been reached; observations have been submitted to make academic community aware of research, prompt discussion, and possibly solicit assistance. For now, the phenomenon remains merely an interesting coincidence, however, future studies include: • Possibility of surreptitious appropriation and allegorical utilization of “Sea Peoples” story • Examination of hieroglyphic inscriptions at Medinet Habu • Determination as to reversibility of process • Viability of previously undiscovered literary device • Philosophical implications Axel HAUSMANN, Technical University of Aachen, Germany "The Disc of Phaistos - An object relating Sicily, Crete and the Island of Santorini" A hypothesis will be presented making it probable that the Disc of Phaistos is the oldest document of a pictographic writing. It could have come to Crete together with Atlantian refugees after the catastrophy which destroied Atlantis. Evidently there exist close relations to the frescos excavated at Acrotiri on the island of Santorin. An interpretation of the contents will be given. P KARTHIGAYAN, Tuberculosis Research Centre, India "The Origin of the Atlantis Civilization through Tamil literary evidences" Introduction: Discovering the origin of a civilization that was devastated and buried deeply by numerous deluges, is quite difficult since the depth prevents their identification and excavation. Under such circumstances, reliance on literary evidence comes to our rescue. Epistemology: Intelligent human race existed several million years ago. They spread their wisdom to their fellow men. Their decedents discovered controlling nature and utilized power of air, gas, magnetism, etc., to enable mode of travel across earth, oceans and sky. They discovered that humans die leaving their body while the world renovates its body after natural calamities like great floods, earthquakes, etc. Their cultural literature were stored in an iron chest, preserved under deep water reservoir, so that the water bed will reduce the impact of great floods and save the literature for future generation that spread across the deformed lands of the tilted globe on all directions. Their logical penetration towards knowledge, could pave way towards stable science, which is not possible otherwise through the mundane approach. It is believed that, even the glorified races like the Greeks and Egyptians possessed lesser knowledge than this race. Their great scientific secrets were inscribed upon palm leaves and made indestructible by transforming them into stone, preserved in stony caves and thus immortalized their wisdom (This idea is supported by Chinese mythology also). Their knowledge is still evidenced on the structure of temples, scientific beliefs, nature-dependent health care traditions, and mythological faith on immortality, found in India. Conclusion: Analyzing the above literary evidences resemble similar to that of Atlantis civilization. Since, all these literary evidences are available in Tamil, the language perfected by the immortals in ancient times, it is strongly believed that the land of the Tamils, in and around India, could be the remains of the origin of the ancient glorious Atlantis. Ulf ERLINGSSON, Independent, USA "A Geographic Comparison of Plato's Atlantis and Ireland as a Test of the Megalithic Culture Hypothesis" In "Atlantis from a Geographer's Perspective: Mapping the Fairy Land" (Lindorm Publishing, 2004) I hypothesized that the Atlantean Empire was modeled on the Megalithic Culture of Europe and Northern Africa. It then followed that Ireland must have been the island of Atlantis. This was tested using two geographical tests, each of which surpassed the 95% confidence level: One regarding length and width, the other regarding the plain surrounded by mountains. In addition to these statistically significant matches, the overall geomorphology also agrees well. Compare this quote from "The World Factbook" (2003) about Ireland: 'Mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast', with these from "Critias": 'The whole island was high and steep on the side of the sea, but at and around the city the surrounding was a plain, which in turn was surrounded by mountains that sloped down to the sea.' ... 'The hills on the island were gently rolling, and the island had an elongate shape, three thousand stadia long and two thousand across in the centre of the island.' In fact, Ireland is about 2,960 stadia long and 2,060 across in the centre—if using the megalithic yard of 0.829 m proposed by Alexander Thom. Although Ireland's dimensions are within 3% of those of Atlantis, only one significant digit was used in the dimension test. The second statistical test concerned the fact that mountains surrounded central lowlands. Only one of the fifty largest islands on earth has that landscape: Ireland. The combined probability that Plato described Atlantis as so similar to Ireland by chance was calculated to less than 0.02%. Considering also the similarity with Irish archaeology and mythology, the earlier sinking of Dogger Bank, and the simultaneous disappearance of the Kongemose Culture, the hypothesis is retained. Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "Atlantis was Israel" In a meticulous investigation, published in my book "Atlantis: the deciphered myth" and supported by the most recent advances in different disciplines, I maintain that the mythical civilization existed in the Near East, its centre being located in the areas comprised by Samaria, Judea, Neguev - today Israel- and Sinai- today part of Egypt. Until about 7,600 years ago, this territory was an island, surrounded by a sea that then included the present valley of Leesrael and the Sea of Galilee in the North; the Dead Sea in the East and the Strait of, or present Suez Canal on the West, which made it a huge island located in the Mediterranean Sea. In that region, more than 11,500 years ago - according to Plato- the Natufian culture was born and prospered. The Natufians were the first food producers in history, which expanded in the following millennium from East to West, from the Mediterranean to the Zagros Mountains (Jarmö), and from North to South from Syria (Ugarit) to the 5th cataract of the Nile river (Badarian) including the Red Sea and Arabia, with an extension of thousands of kilometers, as the legend indicates. Towards 8,000 B.C., they founded the first cities and ports (such as Jericho, Ugarit and Jarmö). Their beginning and end are related to a global climatic change, which took place due to defrosting in the northern region of the Earth, definitively decaying c. 5,600 B.C. due to a natural catastrophe of enormous proportions in the Eastern Mediterranean (Ryan and Pitman). Its existence generated the myth of the Atlantis, which is the origin of the Afro-Asian nations. It was also the base for the expansion of the cattle raising and crop growing civilization in the four cardinal points. And it is from them that towards the beginning of the fifth millennium B.C., the best known classic civilizations emerged: Lower Egypt (Gerzean) and Upper Egypt (Amratian), Crete (Minoan), South-East Europe (Hamangiar, Vincas, Danilo Hvar), Mesopotamia (Tell-Halaf-Uruk), India (Harappa), Yemen (Saba) and Spain (Tarsis). Walter FRIEDRICH, University of Aarhus, Denmark "The Santorini Volcano: Geology and Atlantis Mythos" The Santorini Volcano in Greece is famous for its unique, water-filled caldera, the white pumice layers covering a big part of the island complex, and for the Bronze Age findings buried underneath the ashes. The Minoan eruption that took place 1645 BC destroyed a flourishing Bronze Age settlement, and – according to some scholars - Plato’s account of the legendary island Atlantis is most probably linked to this volcanic catastrophe. Since 1975 the author has performed geological research on Santorini which has resulted in a reconstruction of the pre-Minoan island. The discovery of datable limestone blocks (stromatolites) and other geological investigations showed that a substantial part of the Santorini caldera already existed prior to the Minoan eruption. The pre-Minoan island had a shape similar to the present, with a water-filled caldera and an island in the middle. This reconstruction is now commonly accepted and has successively resulted in geological and archaeological reconsiderations. Ulrich HOFMANN, Independent Researcher, Germany "Was Atlantis a Bronze Age Metropolis in Northafrica?" No doubt about Plato's intension: The Atlantis tale was placed to illustrate the 'Ideal State' developed in his earlier work 'Politea'. Repeatedly that fact was used to claim the Atlantis tale was pure fiction. But neither Prehistoric Athens nor the description of Atlantis show sufficient correspondence with the Ideal State. Plato admits the Atlantis tale is unperfect but emphasizes the tale's merit: its authenticity. When Plato wrote down 'Critias' almost any greek might have visited egypt to proof the story to be right or wrong. None of the critics seems to have taken that into account. An often neglected detail is Plato describes Atlantis to have ruled over Libya to egypt. That means Atlantis must have been located west of Libya and Libya itself must already have been part of the Atlantean territory. That coincides with a statement of Herodotus who tells about a libyan people called 'Atlantioi' living far in the west of North Africa. Also greek mythology places Atlas near lake Tritonis in western North Africa. Plato describes Atlantis as a huge island with a large central plain everywhere surrounded by high mountains. That description fits very well with the Maghreb. The high plain of Algeria is everywhere surrounded by the chains of the Atlas mountains. The shallow Atlantean sea that should have finally vanished resembles the description of lake Tritonis which today is identified with Chott el-Djerrid. Further details like the elefants of Atlantis fit very well with the west of North Africa. Infrared satellite images show a huge sunken geological structure consisting of several concentric circles recently discovered in the eastern part of the Algerian high plain. For 100 years already egyptology has knowledge of a mighty power that ruled from west up to egypt: TEHENU. Theopi PARISAKI, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece "The Atlantis Story and Platonic Mimesis" The events evoked by the story of Atlantis are located in a distant place and time and, therefore, do not permit verification. The vast majority of classical scholars take the story to be an invented myth. Scientists, on the other hand, have been trying to give their hypotheses a scientific basis. Since Plato is the first who wrote about Atlantis, we have to pay serious attention to his own descriptions of the story contained in the Timaeus and Critias, in order to decide whether it is a true story, a myth, a likely myth or something else. After summarizing the ideal state of the Republic (Timaeus, 17c), Socrates asks his interlocutors to give a representation of this state in action engaged in war with other cities, and he remarks that it is very difficult for someone to imitate well in words things which he has not experienced. In the Critias (106c), Critias calls for imitation again and parallels his discourse with painting, as being both imitations or copies of reality. Given that imitation is thrice removed from reality according to the Republic, which is taken as a starting point in the Timaeus (17c, 19a, 27d ff.), one could assume that the Atlantis story is far from truth, because it is an imitation unlikely to provide all the details of reality. However, in the Timaeus the story is characterized as true both by Critias (21a) and Socrates (26e), and the same characterization is implied in the Critias (108d). In order to explain these inconsistencies, we shall have recourse to Plato’s meanings of mimesis and related ideas in previous dialogues. Timothy WYATT, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Spain "Constraints on the search for Atlantis" The essentials of Plato’s Atlantis are that a Bronze Age civilization was rapidly overwhelmed by water and fire. The Athenians were simultaneously swallowed by the earth. If the myth contains germs of real events, is neither fiction nor political propaganda, then any naturalistic interpretation of them is almost bound to hinge on catastrophic geological or astronomical events, and we can ask questions about when and where. Many attempts to determine a location for Atlantis have ignored the temporal and spatial considerations which must constrain a search for these details. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, there have been three major periods of rapid rise in worldwide sealevel, table I; Time, yr BP Rise in sealevel, m I Collapse of Laurentide and Antarctic ice sheets ~ 14000 ~ -110 à - 60 II End of Younger Dryas ~ 11500 ~ - 60 à - 25 III Release of meltwater ~ 7500 ~ -25 à +5 These estimates ignore tectonic instabilities and isostatic compensation. The first is too early to expect the kind of social organization Plato described. The second accords with Plato’s figure of 9000 years before his time, but still predates the Bronze Age. The third period, but a different mechanism, is invoked to account for a version of Noah’s flood. Regionally, there may have been other events less apparent in the geological record. The depths flooded tell us how deep the archaeological remains of lost cities might lie for different time horizons according to orthodox views of the magnitude of post-Pleistocene marine transgressions; putative remains of Atlantis at depths greater than say 150 m require special pleading. Classical scholars place the destruction much later than the periods listed in table I, in the second millenium. Spatial constraints are less severe than the temporal ones. Vivi VASSILOPOULOU, Ministry of Culture, Greece "Atlantis in the eyes of a Greek" It is a known fact that to deal with Atlantis, no matter the topic, one needs the shoulders of Atlas, and this is no play on words. This is why when I was asked to participate in the conference, I was confident in my reply that I had no paper to present on the topic. However, it seems that the greater the temptation, the more the number of ways one finds to succumb. I therefore found it quite easy to then recall an aspect of Atlantis that experts are possibly unfamiliar with, that is out of the ordinary: the artistic aspect. Atlantis in the Eyes of a Greek is the title of an exhibition that was held at the Titanium Gallery in May 2004 and which featured works by Christos Antonaropoulos. In his own special manner, the artist hauls the lost Atlantis from the bottom of the sea and reforms the sunken island, each pencil line rebuilding its “bones”, each brush stroke binding its “flesh”. With boundaries, yet without borders, employing prose and also verse, he draws from legend and images and presents the island’s ‘history’ as it is, challenging the legendary island to emerge from the canvas. His work draws out images redolent with the oldness of the modern and the modernism of the past, like palimpsests formed over the centuries, where each layer opens a window to time. It is a voyeur and voyageur’s glance at a lost paradise, a utopia. Jacques COLLINA-GIRARD, University Aix-Marseille I, France "The Geology of Gibraltar Strait and the Myth of Atlantis" At the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, when the sea level was at -135 m, the Gibraltar Strait was narrower and longer than presently. It opened on a half-enclosed sea (70km x 20 km), between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The largest Island (14 km) and its archipelago faced the Strait in this protected marine area, preceding the real Atlantic Ocean. The paleogeography changed at around 9400 years BC (11400 B.P.), due to the rapid sea level rise (4m/century during Meltwater Pulse 1A). More speculative is the possible contribution of tsunamis, historically and geologically attested in this very seismic area (cf. the Lisbon earthquake and the Holocene turbidites). In the same period, prehistoric hunter-gatherers had to adapt quickly to a major environmental crisis: global warming, general flooding, and reduction of coastal territories, redistribution of hunted animal species and cultural adaptations. This geological history curiously evokes the Egyptian tradition, starting point of the history of Atlantis in the text of Plato (400 years BC), “ Timaeus ” : an island and its archipelago drowned around 9000 years before Plato, immediately off the ""Pillars of Herakles"". Therefore, one hypothesis is that the Plato myth of “ Atlantis ” is built on a local prehistoric tradition of flooding transmitted during 5000 years to the first Egyptian scribes around 3000-4000 BC. Ethnographical examples, observations of long time conservatism in Prehistory and testimonies of the first classical texts prove that verbal traditions could record catastrophical events over a long period. The discrepancy between the size of the island and the degree of civilisation could be interpreted in the point of view of the philosopher, illustrating his own principles, just like a novelist writes his fiction from a core of real events. Obviously, there is a geographical and chronological correlation between the history of the real geological 'Atlantis"" of the Gibraltar Strait and the mythical story of Plato's Atlantis. Accepting the scientific value of this relationship is certainly a speculative attitude … but the coincidence seems too close to be immediately rejected. Emilio SPEDICATO, University of Bergamo, Italy "The Deucalion Catastrophe" The Atlantis story and catastrophe is introduced in Plato as a much older event than the oldest catastrophe that Solon remembered, namely the Deucalion flood, which he was trying to date by counting generations, a count not given in Plato. There is a neglected statement in Orosius's STORIES AGAINST THE PAGANS that dates the Deucalion Flood, the Exodus and the invasion of India by a violent people at about the same time and attributes these events to Phaeton. In this communication we show the following: - that the dating of Exodus at 1447 BC from internal biblical chronology is in agreement with the dating of the invasion of India by the Arians and the dating of Deucalion event by a statement in Pausanias - that Phaeton may be interpreted as a super Tunguska body that after complex and catastrophic interaction with our planet finally explodes in the sky over the river Eider in southern Denmark - that the Exodus events and several migrations from northern Europe/northwest Siberia can be naturally explained within this context - that the survival of Deucalion and the ""crossing"" of the Red Sea by Moses are easy consequences of the explosion of Phaeton. Finally we observe that a mathematical modelling of the event is within reach of present numerical techniques and should be the core of an international project to be named PHAETON, of the greatest interest for the understanding of past catastrophes and possible future ones. Dora KATSONOPOULOU, The Helike Project, Greece "Helike and mythical Atlantis. An illuminating comparison" A strong earthquake and huge seismic sea wave (tsunami) destroyed and submerged the city of Helike in Achaea in the winter of 373 BC.The city with its surrounding land and all inhabitants disappeared in one night during an unprecedented natural disaster, according to ancient sources. In a similar way, the land of mythical Atlantis was lost from the face of the earth, according to the descriptions of philosopher Plato. In the present paper, the author based on literary evidence as well as on recent archaeological evidence from the site of Helike, makes an attempt to illuminate the story of legendary Atlantis. To this end, the connection with Poseidon, the god of earthquakes and the sea, and patron god of both lands is examined. Also, the possible effect of Helike's natural catastrophe on Plato, a contemporary of the event, regarding the impressive description of Atlantis' disappearance is discussed. G.M.Facchetti, Mario NEGRI & E.Notti, IULM-Istituto di Linguistica Generale e Applicata, Italy "Atlantis: Plato's Memories of the Aegean Culture" The focus of this study is to trace Plato’s myth back to its origins in order to attribute Atlantis to only one possible realistic location in time and space, that is to say the historical and cultural context of the Aegean. A comparative analysis of linguistic, archaeological and iconographic evidence is therefore conducted so as to recognize some distinctive features of the Minoan world which Plato seems to recall. Further clues to the Aegean ideology are also derived from an investigation of the Atlantean spatial configurations. In the light of our current archaeological and linguistic data, the references to Atlantis given by Plato in Critias and Timaeus seem to regard the historical, political and cultural events which characterized the Aegean world. The description of an Atlantean golden age followed by a period of decline, concomitant with violent earthquakes and floods, seems therefore to constitute the memory transfigured into a myth of the terrible eruption which took place in Thera (Santorini) around 1530 B.C. Similarly, Plato’s mention of a war between Atlantis and Athens could be related to the political and cultural clash between Minoa and Mycene. Furthermore, Plato’s description of the island’s scenery also reflects characteristic features of the Aegean world. Atlantis is surrounded by concentric circular enclosures. Nevertheless, archaeological and architectural evidence of planned circular urban centres is scarce and mostly related to cosmological beliefs. On the other hand, the arrangement of space in Atlantis follows an archetypal pattern based on a circle-and-square dichotomy, which is widely attested in linguistic, archaeological and literary sources. More precisely, the spatial configuration described by Plato perfectly matches a geometric dualism which can be observed in the iconography and in the shape of dwellings, sacred architecture and burial techniques of the Aegean world. Floyd W. McCOY, University of Hawaii, USA "Reconstructing a lost island - A preliminary depiction of Thera (Santorini) before the Late Bronze Age Eruption" In the devastating eruption of Thera (Santorini) in the Late Bronze Age (LBA), an island that hosted a Cycladic culture was destroyed. Archaeological information suggests the island was a center of trade and religion for a prosperous society; the Cycladians also left a record of their pre-eruption landscape in paintings and frescoes at the archaeological site of Akrotiri. Additional information on that ancient landscape is preserved in the geology of the Santorini archipelago today: relic alluvial fans, buried topographic features, paleosols, and residues of that destroyed landscape incorporated into the LBA eruption deposits. Combining archaeological and geological criteria with an understanding of the eruption dynamics and the progression of eruptive events during the explosion, a preliminary reconstruction of the LBA island just prior to its devastation is presented. Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Continental sized sunken island or not?" Atlantis was, according to the modern translations of Timaeus and Critias, larger than Libya (northern Africa) and Asia-minor ( Tim. 24e, Crit 108e ) and disappeared in one day and night of extensive earthquakes and floods ( Tim. 25d ). This is one of the main reasons the story is believed to have been invented by either Plato or Solon. Plato never used the word continent ( Greek Epeiros ), but he stated that the island was larger than Libya and Asia, which makes it continental sized. Some authors argues that Plato was refering to “greater” in the sense of a Great and Powerful Civilization, mightier than Libya and Asia combined, and not larger. They claim that it was the island of the capital city, also named Atlantis, that collapsed and disappared in the catastrophe, and not the whole island. This makes the story much more credible, but was this really what Plato had in mind when he wrote the Timaeus and the Critias? I will now show that Plato must have been refering to the whole island, not only the capital city, and that authors already 200 years after the time of Plato believed the sunken island to be continental sized. In the end, this has other important implications. Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "Dating the catastrophe of pre-historic Athens. Evidence from Plato's Critias." Plato wrote in the 4th century BC, when he was 52 years old, the Timaeus and Critias dialogues. In that, he describes a double catastrophe from excessive rains and an earthquake of prehistoric Athens. He also describes with many details the Acropolis of Athens and the settlements of its warriors. Archaeological excavations proved fully all these details and also illustrated the causes of the catastrophe (Bronner, 1949). The latter seems to be an earthquake which occurred in Eastern Mediterranean in the end of the Bronze Age producing an earthquake storm which lasted between 1225-1175 yr BC. The storm damaged Tiryns, Athens, Troy and a big number of other cities along major seismogenous fault lines. There is another passage again in Critias in which the consequences of the catastrophe are discussed. In that Plato discusses the survival of the Greek names up to his own period. The identification of Greek names and the Greek language in general in the Linear B tablets proved Plato's statement as well (Carpenter, 1966). Zangger's (1991) study at Tiryns illustrated fully the catastrophe as well. This passage fully proves Plato's information in connection with prehistoric Greece during the beginning of the turbulent century. It is one positive step, in understanding the enigma of Atlantis, since the latter vanished fully later together with the victorious Greeks at some unknown yet for science time interval but not away from the 12th century BC in connection with the catastrophe of Athens. Joseph (2002) reached the same conclusion for the catastrophe of Atlantis using different arguments. Foliot (1984) reaches the same conclusion too using alternative arguments. Both place Atlantis outside Hercules's pillars in West Mediterranean. Marc-Andre GUTSCHER, IUEM - University of Brest, France "The Destruction of Atlantis by a great earthquake and tsunami? A geological analysis of the Spartel Bank hypothesis." Numerous geographical similarities exist between Plato’s descriptions of Atlantis and a paleo-island (Spartel) in the Western Straits of Gibraltar. The dialogues recount a catastrophic event, which submerged the island around 11.6 ka in a single day and night, due to violent earthquakes and floods. This sudden destruction is consistent with a great earthquake (M>8.5) and tsunami, as experienced in the Gulf of Cadiz region in 1755, where tsunami run-up heights reached 10 m. Great earthquakes (M8-9) and tsunami occur in the Gulf of Cadiz, with a repeat time of 1500-2000 years, according to the sedimentary record. An unusually thick turbidite dated around 12 ka may coincide with the destructive event in Plato’s account. The detailed morphology of Spartel paleo-island, as determined from recently acquired high-resolution bathymetric data, is reported here. The viability of human habitation on this paleo-island at 11.6 ka is discussed on the basis of this new bathymetric map. Diamantis PANAGIOTOPOULOS, University of Heidelberg, Germany "The riddle of the Sea Peoples. A synopsis of the hard facts." The Sea Peoples made their sudden appearance on the historical scene of the Eastern Mediterranean in the ‘crisis years’, towards the end of the 13th century BC. Egyptian inscriptions and reliefs record with an unusual wealth of detail their battles against pharaonic armies, yet they offer no evidence about the ‘before’ and ‘after’ of these dramatic events. The provenance and fate of these peoples mostly remain a matter of speculation. The present contribution attempts to summarize what we known and what we think we know about the Sea Peoples focusing on the few hard facts of this archaeological/historical riddle. The thin iconographic and textual evidence has to be supplemented by possible traces of these peoples in the archaeological record. The most crucial questions relevant to the problem are the following: Where did the Sea Peoples come from and why? How reliable is the Egyptian ‘official view’ of the recorded events? What happened to them after their final defeat by the Egyptian army? There can be no doubt that the Sea Peoples phenomenon is closely linked to the collapse of several political systems in the Eastern Mediterranean around the end of the 13th century BC. Yet, prior to any attempt of a historical synthesis, it is essential to know whether their appearance was the cause or rather the effect of these widespread destructions. Spyros B. PAVLIDES, Alexandros CHATZIPETROS & Eirini Galli, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece "Interpreting Myths: Catastrophism and New Catastrophism" Atlantis rises in a new context provided by the construction of scientific knowledge. A major step towards this direction is an interdisciplinary approach in order to highlight the various aspects related to Atlantis speculation. The first problem however that a competent researcher has to confront is the myth itself. At this point the issue of interpreting myths emerges, in other words how to make sense of the past in the present. Notions of time and space in the past are not identical to those of our days. Moreover, invented traditions and re-use of ancient elements in new contexts often make fiction indiscernible from reality. Finally, Plato’s reference to Atlantis does not belong to the collective imaginary; he is the only one formulating this hypothesis, thus arising spontaneous criticism when considered as historical account. The second problem lies in the need for a theoretical framework other than that of catastrophism or recently of new-catastrophism. Volcanoes and earthquakes are seen as catastrophic occurrences which can play part in mass extinction of species, shaping of landforms or even decline of civilizations. The above-mentioned scope however, does not broaden Atlantis’ horizon. Earth is in a constant state of flux. Changes in the coastline or in the direction of river-flow, high rate depositional events or slope erosion can radically alter the landscape and result in hiding traces of past cultures. Similar cases are common ground in archaeological and geomorphological research. Two examples of uncertain identification of seismic events, despite numerous historical references (Thucydides, Strabo, Pausanias, etc.) are the ones of 426 and 373 BC at northern Euboean Gulf and Helice respectively. The use of “mythical” expression, as noted by several Plato scholars, is quite usual and consists a specific writing manner. In Plato’s work however, “myth” is distinctively contrasted to “logos”. The search of lost Atlantis is performed in the frame of rejuvenation of the catastrophism concept in natural sciences, as “neocatastrophism”. That is, episodic ctastrophism rather than gradualism. But gradualism, known as Actualism and Uniformitarianism, is fundamental in Geology and Natural Sciences in general. Atlantis’ success stems mainly on the fact that there are no firm geological or archaeological facts for the construction of a solid argument, therefore every speculation is equally valid or invalid. Atlantis hypothesis stimulates our imagination but has to base its narration on hard data rather than authoritative tradition and memory. Monique PETERSEN, Independent, USA "The Search for Atlantis: Ice Cores and Mammoths." The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine certain passages within Plato’s account of Atlantis and determine if they can be proved scientifically. Topics include dating the catastrophic event that sunk Atlantis by examination of ice cores and other proven dating methods; an analysis if the phrase (in Greek) “Kai de kai elephanton en en autei genos pleiston”, to determine if a more precise meaning may be reached leading to the possibility Plato was describing mammoths; a study of the size of Atlantis, and what this means specifically in terms of modern landmasses of the earth; and finally, further, an examination of evidence of the catastrophic event by studying megafaunal extinctions and the implications of the layers in the soil in relation to these extinctions. Through an examination of these topics, a solution for the location of the island of Atlantis is given at the conclusion of this paper. Filippos TSIKALAS, University of Oslo, Norway Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece V.V.Shuvalov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia "The origin of the multi-ringed concentric morphology of Atlantis capitol and its relations to the Platonic scripts." Based on Plato’s scripts in the Critias unfinished dialogue (Plato, 4th cent. B.C.) about the concentric multi-ring geomorphologic features of the capitol of Atlantis, the similarity of these features with well preserved central-peak and peak-ring impact craters (e.g. Tsikalas et al., 1999), and the performed numerical simulations, we postulate that there is a close connection of Atlantis multi-ring morphology to meteorite impact-related processes. Meteorite impacts are recognized to lead to geological processes involving vast amounts of energy and leading in near instantaneous increase in temperature and pressure, structural deformation, and in redistribution of target materials (e.g. Melosh, 1989). Based on the script descriptions, we envisage that at the time of impact the regional geomorphology fits to an alluvial/estuarine coastal depositional environment with the possibility of even top-deltaic shallow water environment. The numerical simulations of a meteorite impact in such environment reproduce in a very satisfactory manner the characteristic morphological features. In particular, the elevated ~1-km-diameter Acropolis represents the structurally elevated central-high/peak surrounded by an intense deformation within a 6-8 km diameter including morphological undulations of peak-rings of land and trough-depressions eventually filled with water. Surrounding the region of intense central deformation, simulations can reproduce a low-plain/less-deformed region reaching a 22-24 km diameter. At the same outer diameter, a circular wall was “build” by the Atlantes probably at the location of a subdued elevated final rim. Simulations have shown a possible impact-induced temperature increase in the order of 200-300 degrees (C) in the central region and thus possible development of a hydrothermal system. The occurrence of warm springs at the elevated Acropolis, as the surface outcome of this system, strongly supports the impact hypothesis. The hydrothermal system may last for as much as 10,000 yrs if one considers cooling solely due to thermal conductivity of the target material; thermal exhaustion may actually be much faster due to water circulation at the hydrothermal system itself. This estimate can be used as an indirect constraint for the approximate time of physical impact before inhabitation. Therefore, based on the simulations and average target material properties and depending on the time of Atlantis destruction, the impact time may be placed around the end of the last glaciation or most probably at post-glacial times. As a direct consequence of the meteorite impact and the developed vast shock compression pressure, compact melt bodies and dispersed melts were produced. We envisage that the white/red/black stones described in the scripts to have been used as building material by the Atlantes, may be typical impact-related polymictic breccias and suevite, i.e. brecciated matrix material mixed with coloured macroscopic in size or dispersed impact-generated melts. Indeed at the location of some impact craters, black, red and white colour stones are found, believed to result from the pre-existing local target lithology and the impact itself. Impactitic stones have been used during Roman times in France as building material and in medieval times in Germany. Such colours of building material, without being impactites, have been used in the 24th century B.C. Egypt. This means that at least one group of prehistoric people not described by Herodotus used this exact colours for building purposes as Plato described. Furthermore, a typical feature of several shallow-marine target impacts (e.g. 40-km-diameter Mjølnir crater, Tsikalas and Faleide, 2004; 14-km-diameter Lockne crater, von Dalwigk and Ormö, 2001; 20-km-diameter Kamensk crater, Movshovich and Milyavsky, 1990; and 4-km-diameter Kärdla crater, Puura and Suuroja, 1992) is the occurrence of near concentric erosional/depositional resurge gullies acting as inlets of water and material flow back to the crater site during the final modification cratering stages. The gullies result due to a shallow-water cover on top of the target and/or facilitated by pre-existing fracture systems. We postulate that the concentric communication channels/ploughs at Atlantis were not necessarily ideally symmetric, as described by Plato, and we relate them to impact generated resurge gullies. Jonas BERGMAN, Independent, Sweden "Atlantis in Morocco." Atlantis was, according to Plato, located in front of the Pillars of Heracles ( the straits of Gibraltar ) ( Tim. 24e ). The first born child of the Atlantean god Poseidon was named Atlas and received the island of Atlantis as his lot. The second born child was named Gadeirus, and received as his lot the country facing Gadeira ( Crit. 114b ), an ancient Phoenician town and region in southern Spain. The capital city of Atlantis was located in a river delta surrounded by large plains and mountains ( Crit. 118a ). The only possible locations is the plains of Andalusia in southern Spain and the plains of Morocco. I have investigated the geography, the myths and the nature of Morocco in comparison with Plato's Atlantis. Vasilios KAPSIMALIS, Peter Pavlakis, Dimitrios Filippas & Christos Anagnostou, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece "The Cyclades Plateau (Aegean Sea): a lost Atlantis." As recounted by Plato, Atlantis was an extended island, sunk after violent earthquakes and surges, some 11.5 kyr BP. This natural catastrophe was associated with the disappearance of a high-level civilization. In this context, the Cyclades archipelagos located in the central Aegean Sea can be assumed as “Atlantis” too. Our contribution, based on existing bathymetric, geophysical and sedimentary data, studies the geomorphological evolution of the Cyclades complex, since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (ca. 18-20 kyr BP). A GIS is used to reveal the morphometric characteristics and paleo-geographic changes of the area. In addition, certain prehistoric evidence of human activities is considered, for apprehending the influence of the early Cycladic culture upon the eastern Mediterranean. The Cyclades is a shallow structural elevation (plateau), comprising many mountainous islands. The area is regarded as an almost aseismic region, surrounded however by zones of high seismic and volcanic activity. During the LGM, the Cyclades was exposed as an extended island continuum, covering an area of about 7000 km2. During the last transgression, seawater flooded progressively the plateau; hence a significant bridge of human movement disappeared. However, Melian obsidian found in the Greek Mainland and other Mediterranean regions reveals that navigation and trade were common human activities, as early as the Mesolithic period. When the sea level reached its present position (ca. 6 kyr BP), the Cyclades had already lost some 75% of its initial land. At that time, the oldest known Neolithic settlement in the Cyclades was established in a small rocky islet (Saliagos), located between the Paros and Antiparos Islands. This settlement was probably inhabited by uphill moved human groups that forced by the sea level rise. Nowadays, coarse-grained sediments of high carbonate content cover the seabed, forming a variety of subaqueous bedforms, such as sand dunes, ribbons and ripples. Axel HAUSMANN, Technical University of Aachen, Germany "Atlantis - extincted on the Plateau of Malta. An ancient civilisation at the transition from Neolithics to the Bronze Age." In the 4th millennium B.C. a powerful civilization developed in a Plane of the Plateau of Malta in the south east of Sicily. Here for the first time people differentiated their society into castes of priests, warriors, craftsmen and farmers and created writing and calculating with numbers. They invented agriculture with artificial watering, developed metallurgy and the rectangular brick for building as well as shipbuilding. Due to military superiority they succeeded in dominating also the neighbouring islands of Corsica and Sardinia and also the surrounding costal areas in Northern Africa and Western Europe. At about 3500 B.C. the Neolithic empire perished as a consequence of earthquakes and tsunamis within one day followed by a significant rising of the sea level in the Mediterranean. However, not all inhabitants got drowned, as some of them were able to escape with their boats eastwards. They landed in the plane of Messara in southern Crete, in Egypt and Syria, from were they moved forward towards Mesopotamia. Being superior to the autochthon population by means of technology and military power the refugees founded new settlements, which later became the nuclei for the civilizations of pre-dynastic Egypt, pre-minoan Crete and Sumer. It will be shown, that all aspects concerning Atlantis in the dialogues of Plato conform to archaeological findings of the late Neolithic civilization described. The timetable and dimensions of Plato's "Atlantis" agree with reality if they are converted in early Egyptian measures. The same holds for the exact localization of the island of Atlantis in a subtropical climate, which at that time prevailed in the Mediterranean. A geophysical hypothesis will be given explaining the cause of the destruction of "Atlantis". Emilio SPEDICATO, University of Bergamo, Italy "Atlantis in Quisqueya" In this comminication we argue that the time set by Plato for the destruction of the civilization of Atlantis, circa 9500 BC, can be accepted, being compatible with the rather abrupt end of the last great glaciation. The cause of the event was probably of extraterrestrial nature and we briefly discuss two possibilities: an oceanic impact of a large object or, more probably and within the context of the Velikovsky-Ackerman theory of great changes within the solar system in the few millennia before circa 700 BC, the close passage of a planet-size object. After giving reasons why a civilization could develop during the last Ice Age we consider the geographical data given by Plato about the location of the capital city of the Atlantis dominion. We show that the island called by the natives QUISQUEYA, i.d. MOTHER OF LANDS, and by Columbus Hispaniola, fits very well the Platonic data, apart form a couple of changes that are easily explained by inexact transmission of information by Critias junior. The information on Atlantis must have survived mainly in the area of the high mountains of Africa, especially if the cause of the event was the second of the two suggested possibilities. Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "Plato's geographical errors." Atlantis has always been looked for based on antecedents provided by Solon and Plato, who ignored the real history of its civilization. Because of this, they committed serious geographical errors which rendered impossible to identify the real location of the mythical island until now. The greatest mistake was to ignore the existence of the Red Sea, as it is established by Anaximander of Miletus, (610-545 B.C.), which drove Solon to place the island as being West of the Mediterranean, since the land was described as "beyond the Straits", and the only straits that he knew, were Messina (Sicily) and Heracles (present Gibraltar). By he not knowing about the Red Sea, he did not know of Bab el-Mandeb, Eilat and Suez. The second big mistake, based on the previous one, was to change names of places and persons in the Egyptian history. Most importantly, the one that defined the position of Atlantis, made by exchanging the name of "Punt" - Somalia - for "Tyrrhenia" - Italy and North Africa -. This error was based on the presence of the Tyrrheans or Phoenicians or Puonis in Tyrrhenia, which are the same people that had formerly inhabited the Punt. This led to the translation of the name of the territory facing to Punt, Arabia, for Europe, and that in turn, led them to change the name of the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb for Messina, and the Straits of Eilat and Suez for the Pillars of Hercules, or vice versa, indicating that this civilization had dominated Europe, when the Egyptian history was talking about Arabia. The third great platonic mistake was to locate the island in the Atlantic Ocean. The ancient name of this sea was Okeano, until Herodotus of Halicarnassus, (484-425 B.C.) gave it its new name. It is therefore, impossible to assume that the name had been established by the Egyptians or even by Solon. It is quite evident that it was Plato who gave it the name, thereby erroneously placing the Atlantis there. Fotis TSAKOPOULOS, University of Athens, Greece "An archaeological concept of the mythical conflict between Atlantis and Prehistoric Athenians." The Greek archaeologist Nikolaos Platon, in his book "Zakros. The New Minoan Palace", reports the unexpected pause in the narration of the Critias dialogue. This takes place before the beginning of the war between the naval power of Atlantis and the political and military might of the Athenians The reason for the conflict was the arrogance of Atlantis, which gave the ivris (ýâñéò). The same ivris was seen in the myth of Minotavros. The ivris will constrain the Athenian king Thisseus to march against Minoan Crete. According to the ancient Greeks ivris always brings nemessis (íÝìåóéò), which finally brings catharsis (êÜèáñóéò). In this case, one myth completes the other. Many scientists agree that the kernel (the key) to the myth of Atlantis is Minoan naval power. The question is did Athens have the power to oppose Atlantis and then to conquer her? What evidence is there in the excavation data about this? Jaime MANUSCHEVICH, University of Chile, Chile "The sea sank." A great difficulty to decipher the Atlantis myth is the understanding of platonic texts. One of them indicates that "after wards sunk by an earthquake, became an impassable barrier of mud to voyagers sailing from hence to any part of the ocean. (109)". One occurs generally by fact that the sunk thing is the land, nevertheless, in story lays for another direction: the desiccating of the sea. Under my theory, that Israel or Canaan was the Atlantis, this is easier to understand, because I indicate that he was exactly that what it happened, that is to say, that the sea sank, lowering his level. The desertification of the region, many other geologic data of the zone, the separation of the Dead Sea of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea and the distance of the coasts of several old cities (Ur, Ugarit, and Jericho) therefore indicate it. Today science can prove it. A work made in Colombia, call "Quaternary Variations of the Level of the Sea and Their Implications in Coast Risk of the Colombian Caribbean ", of 1997, concludes that the sea had a height superior in 2 to 3 meters at the present level makes about 2400 years A.P. Another investigation "Messages of the Past Written in the Sand", of April of the 2002, made by the University of Haifa and the Argentine Antarctic Institute, indicates that "the global height of the sea reached its present value 5.000-6.000 years ago" and "that during a lapse near 2,000 years (between 8,400 and 6,400 years before the present) it happened an important reduction of the level of the sea, that is considered in about 25 ms." For other part, Kurt Lambeck and J. Chappell, (SCIENCE) indicate that in Angerman, in the last 9000 years, the level of the water lowered 200 meters. In conclusion, the sea lowered, flooding the region. Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "The differences between myth & fiction and myth & fact” In ancient texts we read occasionally about fictions, myths and historical facts. The first category contains fictitious elements in the periphery and the center of a story which is presented for paedagogic purposes. The second category contains fictitious elements in the periphery but not in the center of a story which is a real event. This second category is divided in two sub-divisions. The first sub-division originates from direct observation of an evolving natural event not understood by the observer. The second sub-division is the description of a natural past event by the observer who adds interpretive fictitious elements attempting to interpret it. The full fictions reflect the psychological necessities of the humanity to build up “ stories “ and is a domain of the psychological sciences. However, both sub-divisions of the second category belong in the world of the physical sciences and their nucleus can be tested by the physical sciences after the removal of the fictitious periphery. The third category is the historical fact which is tackled by history as it was defined methodologically better than Herodotus by the brilliant Thucydides. Both types of genuine myths contain the memories or interpretations of the phaenomena of non-literal part of the humanity of the last 50,000 years. They remained in oral traditions with the assistance of some sort of rhythm up to the time of writing. Some of them also remained as signs or pictures. They are time capsules of exceptional interest waiting to be decoded. Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS & Chara COSEYAN, University of Patras, Greece "Ritual Capture and Sacrifice of the Bull at Atlantis. Are there any parallels?" Plato in his dialogue Kritias describes a ceremonial capture of bulls already in capti-vity in Poseidon’s royal quarters with the assistance of a catchment device (âñü÷ïò). Initially such a catchment device was taken to be the laso which have been used by the Egyptian at all epochs as sign of vitality of the practitioners Pharaohs and other high standing servants. However, the linguistic analysis of the vrochos (in Greek) leads to morotton (ìüñïôôïí) which is protoeuropean and means a type of a particular net associated with the bull since it is called taureia (ôáõñåßá) by Esychios. It is also found associated with the word meregh used in Illyria (Albania). In Russian the word merega means a bag made from a net. Archaeological evidence illustrate bulls with wheels of 16-15th B.C. found at Psira island in Crete with a “decorative” net around the body of the animals, a possible memory of the capture of them. The Vapheio golden cups found in Peloponnesus of 15th B.C. do illustrate bulls captured by a net not necessarily the taureia meant by Esychios. The argument of the Atlantis analysts that Plato saw the laso as an art theme in Egypt, in a trip mentioned by Plutarch, is therefore removed since the meaning of the word is different in Greek. The story originates from Egypt due to Solon who visited it in the 6th B.C. but the nucleus of the bull ritual originates outside of Egypt. The capture has nothing to do with the leaping over the bull which the prehistoric Cretans were practised in the Aegean and Africa. The killing of the bull has nothing to do with the ritual sacrifice which the prehistoric and historic Greeks were practised through the aeons and similarly with Egypt. There is remarkable similarity with sacrifice of the bull in Troy in Roman times ! So far no other archaeological evidence exists round the world to demonstrate something like that. There is however a very strange ritual of the “ Atlantes ”, dressed in blue clothes, drinking an unknown liquid in a golden cup in which bull’s blood was added. The only place in the world in which a similar practice was exercised is the circular lake Guatavita in Guatemala in South America. The Indian who is going to be appointed chief is painted first with resin and then is covered fully with gold dust. As he shines in the sun dives in the water leaving behind him a golden stream. When he reaches the other side the priests covered him with a blue cloth. As the ritual reaches the culmination, the crowd watching the ritual bursts emotionally and starts to throw golden objects into the lake ! Semiotically the points of the parallels are many turning the interest to South America since the circular lake is understood by the Indians to be made by a golden meteoritic body ! The bull’s red clot of blood dropping in the “ circular “ golden cup is a micrograph of the falling of a meteoritic body and a very strong parallel of what the “Atlantes “ were practising believed Poseidon produced in their circular lake too. The blue ceremonial dress of the chieftains Atlantes and the Indian chieftain in both cases in connection with the circular lake is an exact and remarkable similarity. Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece Niki DRIVALIARI, University of the Aegean, Greece Chara COSEYAN, University of Patras, Greece "Erytheia as 'Atlantis'. A case prior to Plato" Hesiod (Çóßïäïò) describing the legendary island of Erytheia (Åñõèåßá) surrounded by the Ocean in which an airborn Chryssaor (×ñõóÜùñ), whose name means golden sword, the son of Poseidon (Ðïóåéäþí) and Medousa (ÌÝäïõóá) came in erotic contact with the daughter of the ïcean Kalerroe (Êáëëéññüç) and produced the three head Gerion (Ãçñéüíçò). Hesiod involves the hero of the Achaeans Heracles (ÇñáêëÞò) who reaches Erytheia by sea with the assistance of the Sun’s golden depas (äÝðáò). Although we do not know the exact function and meaning of the golden depas, it assisted Heracles to find Erytheia in the sea. On Erytheia, in spite of the assistance, given to Gerion by the “dog “ Orthos (¼ñèïò) and the shepherd Eurytion (Åõñéôßùí), Heracles managed to get the bulls, and killed Gerion in conflict. On the place of his tomb, as later ancient Greek writers mention, a tree grew and due to sorrow from Gerion’s death produced red tears. This is a typical myth which requires stepwise analysis. In its center some true facts exist . The latter are the following. The red island, since Erytheia means red, surrounded by the ocean. The contact of the Achaeans by sea. The occupants of the island and the environment of bulls and sheep. In the periphery of the myth there are inventions because the non-literal visitors Achaeans could not comprehend, this new for them, exotic environment. Poseidon who is directly involved in an erotic contact with Cleito in Plato’s “ Atlantis “ now in Hesiod, “ becomes ” his son Chryssaor who does exactly the same act. He has a similar contact with Kalerroe on an island in the ocean. In Plato’s version Poseidon produces three concentric circles after the “meeting ” with the woman. In Hesiod Chryssaor produces the three “ heads “ Gyrion after the meeting with the woman. We set, a new working hypothesis. It is known that Gyrion means linguistically weeping.. At the present time we are not in a position to demonstrate if the three heads were one within the others, with other words concentrically, or individually and separately placed. However, we point the presence of bulls at Erytheia, a typical fertility symbol and the erotic act of Chryssaor. We note that the symbol of the three concentric circles together with the bulls and a volcanic crater appear as a fertility symbol in Tsatal Hujuk in Turkey even from Neolithic times. With other words the same three concentric circles as in Plato’s case and the erotic act of Poseidon. The case of Chryssaor’s performance does not mean that people were present during its activity. It means that the prehistoric non-literal people interpreted much later the unusual site of an island with a preexisting crater when they visited the particular environment. The Heracles / Gyrion battle is an interpretive myth, illustrating with non-literal description, an island somewhere with a crater. There is a partial parallel. It is the battle between Poseidon / Polyvotis. It leads us to the description of another island with an interpretive myth of non-literal people. The island of Nisyros with the known volcanic crater in the Aegean. The bulls appear, as in Erytheia, hidden in the name of Polyvotis, the warrior son of the earth, whose name means many bulls. It seems, we have almost equalization between the two myths presented by Hesiod and Plato respectively. The orthos “ dog “, whose name means upright, is the impassable of the site and therefore the structure’s protector with other words Gerion’s. It is an exact parallel to the impassable of the structure which Poseidon produced in Plato’s Atlantis. In Hesiod’s case, except of the impassable, the threatening voice of the orthos “dog ” is added. We interpret this as the threatening noise of the seismic activity of the site. The “ red tears ” of the tree which grew in the position of Gerion’s tomb has particular interest since it leads us where “ Atlantis ” was located. Such trees exist out side of the Mediterranean and produce red resin. The red resin is called Dragon’s blood. The names of these plants are Calamus draco, Draconis resina and Sanquis draconis. Such a plants are distributed today in Africa, Indonesia, India, Malaysia (Daemonorops), Vietnam, Cambodia (Dracaena). The folk names in various counties are : Blood, Blume, Calamus Draco, Draconis, Resina, Sanguis Draconis, Dragon’s Blood Palm. It was known to ancient Greeks, Romans, and Arabs to have medicinal properties. The ancient Greek writer Discouridis described it. Mariners of the 15th century A.D. found it in the Canaries. The exotic tree Dracena Draco is a native to the Canary islands, Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and the Atlas mountains in Marocco. The natives of these regions harvested the resin for mummification procedures. In spite of the fact that Hesiod does not locate his Erytheia in a way to understand its position and inspite of the fact that other authors such as Stesichoros and Pindar locate it close to the peninsula of Cadiz and Guadalkivir river in Andalusia. We propose that Hesiod’s Erytheia with the previously assumed by us characteristics, as we interpret his text, does not fit with the present day island existing close to Cadiz. If Erytheia is indeed “ Atlantis ” then we should look for it in the places in which the tree with red resin existed in 1200 yr B.C. as the present analysis leads us. “ Atlantis ” was lost due to a very strong earthquake and a consequent giant landslide. It was the last tragic spasm of the seismic storm which acted between 1225 and 1175 yr B.C. along the main contact of the lithospheric plates of Africa and Eurasia and along the peripheral faults in East and West Mediterranean and destroyed partly prehistoric Troy, Tiryns and Athens and many other prehistoric cities and totally Hesiod’s 7th century B.C. Erytheia, or Hellanicus 5th century B.C. Atlantias, or Plato’s 4th century B.C. Atlantis. Anthony KONTARATOS, Independent, Greece "Atlantis: Review of some little known references" This paper presents a commentary of neoplatonist Proclus on the existence of Atlantis, the Oera Linda Book on the destruction of Atlantis and the Flem-Ath theory linking Atlantis to Antarctica. The Oera Linda Book is the published version of on an ancient Friesian manuscript found in Netherlands, reporting the destruction by floods and cataclysms of a landmass, known as Atland. The Flem-Ath theory draws evidence from four sources for support: the Kircher map from alleged Egyptian sources, placing Atlantis to the South Atlantic, the similarity of Kircher's map to ice-free Antartica, the notion that Atlantis lies under the Antarctica ice cap and the Crust Displacement Theory explaining how Kircher's Atlantis found its way from the hospitable temperate South Atlantic to the inhospitable frozen South Pole. Stavros PAPAMARINOPOULOS, University of Patras, Greece "Plato's Phaethon and Homer's Phaethousa. Cometary Fragments in the 12th Century B.C." Plato, in Timaeos, describes the story of the inadequate son of the sun who mimics his father and calls him Phaethon (visible). The latter burns the earth. Plato refuses the element of the myth in this story. The definition of the phaenomenon by Plato is very close to the modern astronomical understanding of a comet. The association of the comet with the 12th century B.C. originates with the proved catastrophe marked in Athens by an earthquake and excessive rain mentioned by Plato at Critias. Homer describes allegorically the appearance of a comet as the shining flying goddess Athena coming from the west to the Troad. He also calls the female and male presentation of the comet as Phaethousa and Phaethon respectively. In fact he presents them together with another flying entity called Lambetia and Lampos meaning (shining) as female and male respectively. He also describes allegorically the comet in two instances. The first is the battle of a red dragon with a white eagle and the second is the battle of Athena throwing a stone in the “ neck ” of god Aris during the combat between Greeks and Trojans. The female and male appearance of the celestial phaenomenon is an optical illusion seeing by the same people just minutes before sunset and immediately after dawn. Kobres (1992,1995) in his innovative studies about the Phaethon’s ride collected all possible myths round the world corresponding about the 12th century B.C. and made a mathematical simulation of the possible trajectory of the comet approaching earth. The later for few hours was admired by priest observers from different latitudes of different cultures in the same century as it was interacting with the atmosphere. In order to prove physically the existence of Phaethon’s effect, on some area of the planet, one needs to collect samples from studied stratigraphies in which the horizon of the 12th century B.C. belongs outside of burnt palaces. If a burnt horizon exists in past forests then one could not count it as the result of the action of an earthquake or even of accidental fires. The scale of the burnt palaces and the absence of attacking warriors in the East Mediterranean in the 12th century B.C., except Troy’s case, could not be interpreted as accidental fires. It seems that both writers Homer and Plato describe a complementary view of the 12th century B.C. from different angles.The collapse of the late Bronze Age kingdoms in East Mediterranean is the result of the earthquake storm, of Phaethon and of the Sea People. There is not change in the climate in the East Mediterranean as Carpenter (1966) had theorized, but uneven disturbances during Phaethon’s ride which introduced short but severe hardships in the economies of the suffered countries. Baillie and Munro (1988) found an anomalous tree ring precipitation change in the 12th century B.C. in Irish trees. Hodell (1991) found a mark of drought in the climate of the Caribbean in the same century. Both studies illustrate the complexity and the bipolarity of the effect of the comet as it interacted with the Earth without crashing on it. The request for details studies in climatic perturbation in the 12th century B.C. is a necessity. The vanished Atlantis belongs in that unique in violence of nature and of people century. Rosario VIENI, Former High School History Professor, Italy "11,500 years ago." The Columns of Hercules, Odysseus, Taboo, and the ancient dream of man.For us today the extreme border is represented by the cosmos... our ancestors however believed this border to be found in the waves of Ossidiana near the extremity of this western sea: an unknown sea at that time.For the Greeks the first border was represented by the Bosporus (cfr. the myth of Giasone); then Sicily (cfr. the Odyssey of the first navigators); and finally the central part of the Mediterranean Sea.At the end of the glacial period of the Wurmiano, the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea was separate from the western part. There were two enormous basins of water whose levels were, however, different: the lower level was at least 150 meters.And the coasts of the emerged earths were nearer to each other, nearer than they are now. Diamantis PASTRAS, Atenfoods, Australia "Final solution to the question of Atlantis" The site of atlantis was situated,at what today are the remains of the Cyclades and Astipalea,with its sister island of what is today called Crete(it had a different name 3500 years ago,seeing that the ancient egyptians beleived that crete sunk into the sea,it cannot have been the crete of today).There is an ancient egyptian map(from the egyptian book of the dead) in the british museum over 3500 years it consists of two islands on of which is disected by a river 1000(plethera-should be stades)200km fits the area of the cyclades and astipalaea perfectly,you can also super impose the egyptian map over this area, it fits almost perfect to scale. Zdenek KUKAL, Czech Geological Survey, Czech Republic "Atlantis problem - never ending conlict between Science & Fiction" Recently published views on possible location of Plat´s Artlantis (Strait of Gibraltar, Cyprus, Troy, Egypt, Black Sea floor, Spain) have rejuvenated the problem of Atlantis.Principal question is as follows: Do we search for real Plato´s Atlantis, as described in his dialogues Timaios and Kritias, or for any lost unknown civilization ? Irt is clear that most of authors do not adher to the exact Plato´s description which includes:a) Plato asserts that an advanced civilization existed on the island of Atlantis.b) Plato described the size, landforms, architecture, and military strength of the Atlanrtis.c) Plato specified, but very vaguely, the Atlantis location.d) Plato described also social order and system of government in the Atlantis.e) Plato descibed also the destruction of this civilization but only in general.Taking into account all these pieces of information, it follows that the Plato´s Atlantis is a pure fiction. Additional problem arises what was Plato´s objective in mind and which echoes of Plato´s own time and immediate past his description mirrors.Geological constraints are of primary importance in searching for any traces of lost ancient civilization. So, all the possible natural catastrophes have to be analysed, as volcanic eruptions, tectonic movements, seismicity, tsunamis, catastrophic sedimentation, asteroiid impacts, etc , which could have caused the desctruction of ancient civilizaion or part of it. The NMediterranean Sea sis a good candidate for discovering of some ancient monuments that were destroyed "in a single day and night of misfortune". Anthony KONTARATOS, Independent, Greece "Atlantis: Fact or Fiction?" Plato’s story is examined from a reliability point of view. He is repeating in his two dialogues twenty two times that his story is true. The archaeological evidence, however, is negative on all counts. Three mechanisms can be identified that can give rise to the geomorphology described. As to the whereabouts of Atlantis ten criteria are proposed to help identify its resting site. None of the sites suggested fulfills all ten criteria in the past and the present. Enlaces: http://milos.conferences.gr/ http://milos.conferences.gr/?atlantis2005 http://milos.conferences.gr/uploads/media/Conference_Programme.pdf (Por gentileza de José Luis Santos Fernández, www.terraeantiqvae.com) Noticia del 15 de agosto de 2005: La Atlántida en la Isla de Espartel, y por un tsunami Fuente: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4153008.stm Last Updated: Monday, 15 August 2005, 13:47 GMT 14:47 UK Tsunami clue to 'Atlantis' found A submerged island that could be the source of the Atlantis myth was hit by a large earthquake and tsunami 12,000 years ago, a geologist has discovered. Spartel Island now lies 60m under the sea in the Straits of Gibraltar, but some think it once lay above water. The finding adds weight to a hypothesis that the island could have inspired the legend recounted by the philosopher Plato more than 2,000 years ago. Evidence comes from a seafloor survey published in the journal Geology. Marc-André Gutscher of the University of Western Brittany in Plouzané, France, found a coarse-grained sedimentary deposit that is 50-120cm thick and could have been left behind after a tsunami. Shaken sediments Dr Gutscher said that the destruction described by Plato is consistent with a great earthquake and tsunami similar to the one that devastated the city of Lisbon in Portugal in 1755, generating waves with heights of up to 10m. The thick "turbidite" deposit results from sediments that have been shaken up by underwater geological upheavals. It was found to date to around 12,000 years ago - roughly the age indicated by Plato for the destruction of Atlantis, Dr Gutscher reports in Geology. Spartel Island, in the Gulf of Cadiz, was proposed as a candidate for the origin of the Atlantis legend in 2001 by French geologist Jacques Collina-Girard. It is "in front of the Pillars of Hercules", or the Straits of Gibraltar, as Plato described. The philosopher said the fabled island civilisation had been destroyed in a single day and night, disappearing below the sea. Sedimentary records reveal that events like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake occur every 1,500 to 2,000 years in the Gulf of Cadiz. But the mapping of the island carried out by Dr Gutscher failed to turn up any manmade structures and also showed that the island was much smaller than previously believed. This could make it less likely that the island was inhabited by a civilisation. (Gentileza de Graça Cravinho, vía Archport) ............................ LAS 24 CONDICIONES QUE DEBE CUMPLIR UN LUGAR CANDIDATO A SER LA PERDIDA ATLÁNTIDA, A PARTIR, EXCLUSIVAMENTE, DE LOS TEXTOS DE PLATÓN Atlantis: If, when and where? Scientists and researchers from 15 countries gathered on Milos Island from 11th to 13th July in order to exchange their ideas and opinions about Atlantis. During the Conference �The Atlantis Hypothesis � Searching for a Lost Land�, specialists in the field of archaeology, geology, volcanology and other sciences presented and substantiated their views regarding the place where Atlantis existed, the time when it was destroyed and the causes of its destruction, whilst a number of people expressed their doubts as to whether it actually existed. Based on the accounts of Plato, the conference participants agreed on the following 24 criteria, which a geographical area must satisfy in order to qualify as a site where Atlantis could have existed: 1. The Metropolis of Atlantis should have been located where an island used to be and where parts of it may still exist. 2. The Metropolis of Atlantis should have had a most distinct geomorphology composed of alternating concentric rings of land and water. 3. The Atlantis should have been located outside the Pillars of Hercules. 4. The Metropolis of Atlantis was greater than Libya and Anatolia and Middle East and Sinai (combined). 5. Atlantis must have sheltered a literate population with metallurgical and navigational skills. 6. The Metropolis of Atlantis should have been routinely reachable from Athens by sea. 7. At the time, Atlantis should have been at war with Athens. 8. The Metropolis of Athens must have suffered a devastating physical destruction of unprecedented proportions. 9. The Metropolis of Atlantis should have sunk entirely or partly below the water. 10. The Metropolis of Atlantis was destroyed 9000 Egyptian years before the 6th century B.C. 11. The part of Atlantis was 50 stadia (7,5 km) from the city. 12. Atlantis had a high population density, enough to support a large army (10,000 chariots, 1,200 ships, 1,200,000 hoplites) 13. The region of Atlantis involved the sacrifice of bulls. 14. The destruction of Atlantis was accompanied by an earthquake. 15. After the destruction of Atlantis, the passage of ships was blocked. 16. Elephants were present in Atlantis. 17. No physically or geologically impossible processes were involved in the destruction of Atlantis. 18. Hot and cold springs, with mineral deposits, were present in Atlantis. 19. Atlantis lay on a coastal plain 2000 X 3000 stadia surrounded by mountains falling into the sea. 20. Atlantis controlled other states of the period. 21. Winds in Atlantis came from the north (only in Northern hemisphere) 22. The rocks in Atlantis were of various colors: black, white, and red. 23. There were canals for irrigation in Atlantis. 24. Every 5th and 6th year, they sacrificed bulls. In response to the above criteria, some views doubting the existence of Atlantis were also presented. The main representative of such doubt was Professor Christos Doumas, Director of Akrotiri Excavations in Santorini and member of the Scientific Committee of the Conference, who supported the theory that the existence of Atlantis is a myth and its pursuit a utopia. �The same conference will be organised again in three years in order to establish what progress has been made in research about the Lost Land and it will probably be then that the scientific community will be ready to bring to light the secret of Atlantis�, stated Mr. Kostas Konstantinidis, Managing Director of Heliotopos Conferences, who also had the original idea of the conference. The Atlantis Book Exhibition that took place alongside the conference was of particular interest. During the exhibition 50 books and magazines about the Lost Atlantis, Greek and foreign, old and new publications, were presented. The book exhibition was coordinated by Mr. Manolis Lignos, founder of the Folklore Museum of Santorini. The conference was organised within the framework of Milos Conferences and was supported by the Milos Conference Centre and S&B Industrial Minerals S.A. The eagerly awaited Conference Proceedings will include all of the presentations and will be the first book about Atlantis to contain such a wide range of views and approaches to the Atlantis hypothesis. The book will be published within a few months and will be available at the electronic bookshop at www.conferences.gr Fuente: http://milos.conferences.gr/index.php?id=2964

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Comentarios

Tijera Pulsa este icono si opinas que la información está fuera de lugar, no tiene rigor o es de nulo interés.
Tu único clic no la borarrá, pero contribuirá a que la sabiduría del grupo pueda funcionar correctamente.


  1. #1 eyna 13 de jul. 2005

    pues, Alicia,por tu despedida, la primera ilustración que se me ocurre para este artículo es la de un abanico......lo digo por lo de 'calurosos' :-D :-D ¡que se te entiende tó! puede ser interesante seguir ese congreso, en parte por la diversidad de especialistas, me ha llamado la atención y en parte, por que se pueden llegar a oir cosas muuy curiosaas. ya he visto que te diste cuenta del 'gazapo' de la......Atlántica! ;-) :-) venga, no curres mucho, abanicate con arte y disfruta de un vasito de manzanilla a nuestra salud! :-P

  2. #2 Ank 14 de jul. 2005

    Agradezco la información, Sra. Canto, y ahora mismo buscaré en la página de terraeantiqvae para ver si consigo más detalles sobre ese congreso, ya que el enlace que nos facilita ha debido caducar porque no funciona. Ya me gustaría saber en qué se basa Pavlidis para afirmar que "Platón hablaba de una ALEGORÍA sobre la decadencia de una civilización", supongo que debe ser una impresión personal de este ponente, ya que en ningún pasaje del Critias o del Timeo da a entender nuestro filósofo que su relato fuese una alegoría, más bien todo lo contrario. En cuanto a si "imaginó Platón a su Atlántida en Santorini o en alguna de las islas que quedaron sumergidas", creo que en absoluto; nuestro filósofo la ubica muy claramente: Más allá de las Columnas de Hércules, frente al Atlas. Es decir, en la zona del Golfo de Cádiz. Saludos.

  3. #3 exegesisdelclavo 15 de jul. 2005

    Osea, que en este congreso no habrá teorías del Atlántida en Canarias etc...¿no? Espero que saquen algo productivo. Cuidado con el bochorno, es algo "exagerao";)

  4. #4 giorgiodieffe 15 de jul. 2005

    Hay otras teorias tambien sobre las columnas de Hercules...que no fuesen originariamente entre Espana y Marroco, sino entre Tunisia y Sicilia. Y que Atlantida fuese la Cerdena... Yo no sé...todavia no vivia...:-) http://www.repubblica.it/online/cultura_scienze/colonne/presentazione/presentazione.html

  5. #5 Teshub 15 de jul. 2005

    Coincido con Ank, no sólo dar por sentada la ubicación en las cícladas de la Atlántida carece de fundamento en los escritos, sino que incluso el decir que la civilización cretense sucumbió por la destrucción de Santorini constituye un error histórico. Knossos fue reconstruido tras el incendio-maremoto, como Festos, Zakros, Hagia Triada (donde incluso se construyó un nuevo palacio durante la época postpalaciega) y Gurnia, y el comercio minoico siguió funcionando, como lo prueba incluso la presencia de objetos cretenses en Mari o que Tutmosis III (contemporáneo de la explosión de Thera) mencionase al rey del país de Keftiou, sin indicar que tuviese problemas, sino que por el contrario mantenía una posición y una relación comercial con Egipto. Eso por no referirnos a la posible conexión entre la escritura lineal B y el lenguaje jeroglífico hitita. Y, en todo caso, Santorini no podría ser la Atlántida puesto que no desapareció sumergida, sólo mermó y se fracturó, pero aún sigue emergida. Aceptar que Santorini es la Atlántida implica negar la mayoría de los datos que ofrece Platón, de modo que, ¿qué sentido tiene creer que existió, si no creemos cómo existió y sucumbió?

  6. #6 Brigantinus 16 de jul. 2005

    Yo creo que la ubicación de la Atlántida es en la mente de Platón. Probablemente se inspiró en algún acontecimiento o civilización con existencia real, pero convenientemente deformados por el paso del tiempo y su propia imaginación. A lo mejor fusionó datos de aquí y allí, de épocas distintas y civilizaciones distintas... Personalmente, creo que ninguna civilización se ajusta de manera satisfactoria al modelo atlante, lo que confirma su carácter de invención. El hecho de estar ubicada en el Atlántivo se entiende si entendemos que las Columnas de Hércules eran el límite entre lo conocido y lo desconocido. Por eso creo que no debemos interpretar la Atlántida en términos positivistas. Y si lo hacemos, hágamoslo con todos los datos que aportan los diálogos platónicos: ello -por ejemplo- descartaría la opción Tartessos. Platón dice que el relato fue oído por su ancestro Solón en un viaje a Egipto. (en torno al 600 a. C.) Me resulta difícil creer que la cultura tartéssica, en aquella época en su mejor momento, pudiera inspirar el mito de una civilización desaparecida. Insisto; creo que la Atlántida es inidentificable con ninguna civilización real, tal vez porque precisamente fue concebida con elementos de varias de ellas...

  7. #7 Ank 17 de jul. 2005

    Estimado Brigantinus, con todo mi respeto a tu opinión contrapongo la mía. Parece olvidarse que Platón en sus Critias y Timeo, nunca dice estar refiriéndose a mitos, leyendas o cuentos, sino a las vivencias de Solón en Egipto, lo dice de modo muy claro al principio de su obra, citando incluso las manos por las que pasaron los documentos y cómo se ocuparon de ellos. Es decir, estaba declarando un hecho que ocurrió a un ilustre paisano suyo que lo transmitió por escrito. Platón no refiere que se inspirase en nada, ni afirma que lo que contaba fuese una leyenda o alegoría, no necesitaba hacerlo; plasmaba un relato haciendo referencias muy claras a las fuentes del mismo y el conducto por el que le llegó. Así, en el Timeo transcribe un diálogo entre Socrátes y Critias: ..."Escucha, entonces, Sócrates, un relato muy extraño, pero absolutamente verdadero, tal como en una ocasión lo relataba Solón, el más sabio de los siete, que era pariente y muy amigo de mi bisabuelo Drópida, como él mismo afirma en muchos pasajes de su obra poética. Le contó a Critias, nuestro abuelo, que de viejo nos lo relataba a nosotros, que grandes y admirables hazañas antiguas de esta ciudad habían desaparecido a causa del tiempo transcurrido y la destrucción de sus habitantes"... Entiendo que no se valora adecuadamente su relato, en parte por no profundizar y en parte por desconocimiento del mismo (¿hemos leído esas 20 páginas?), merecería toda clase de estudios. Porque ¿fue una invención tan falta de ética que incluso debió recurrir a mentiras tan directas como cuando pone en boca de Critias "Esos documentos se encontraban en casa de mi abuelo y, actualmente, están todavía en mi poder y me ocupé diligentemente de ellos cuando era niño", cuando hace decir nada menos que a Sócrates que "la historia de Solón, no era una mera fábula" o cuando la califica "llena de verdad"? ¿Tan necesaria resultaba esta invención para el lustre de su República? Por otra parte, ¿Qué motivo hay para pensar que Platón actuó poniendo mentiras en bocas ajenas a las que mancharía su honor y credibilidad? ¿Se atrevió a citar como autores de su mentira a amigos, filósofos, parientes que eran o fueron parte de la élite y de verdadero crédito como Sócrates, Critias, Crantor e incluso a uno de los siete sabios de Grecia, Solón?. Teniendo en cuenta el sentido del honor de aquella gente se me hace durillo de encajar. Dices que ninguna civilización se ajusta de manera satisfactoria al modelo atlante, pero eso no confirma su invención, porque ¿cual es el modelo atlante? En lo que sí coincido contigo es en no identificarla con Tartessos... ni con Creta, ni con Santorini, ni con la Antártida ni cosas raras. Cuando afirmas que la Atlántida es inidentificable con ninguna civilización real, supongo que quieres decir "con ninguna civilización conocida" ¿cierto?; que no sea identificable, como dices, no veo que la invalide como posible. El Critias y el Timeo son, indiscutiblemente, documentos históricos, otra cosa es la credibilidad que queramos darles. Conocemos su contexto y personajes, además referencias o citas de otros clásicos sobre el tema... Hasta donde sé, yo también insisto en esto, Atlantis como hipótesis honrada es tan válida como cualquier otra. Saludos cordiales.

  8. #8 Robert 17 de jul. 2005

    Critias y Timeo son tan "indiscutiblemente, documentos históricos" como, al menos, el Libro del Génesis. Atlantis como "hipótesis honrada" será tan "honrada" como el peso de las pruebas (y no de las conjeturas subjetivas) en que tal hipótesis pueda sustentarse. Eso es método científico, el resto son charlas entre amigos.

  9. #9 Ank 17 de jul. 2005

    Entre el Génesis y los escritos de Platón hay "sutiles" diferencias ¿no te parece, Robert? Si desposeemos de veracidad (¿siguiendo el método científico?) a las afirmaciones de Platón, sólo nos queda formular una hipótesis. Cuando existen pruebas ya no existe hipótesis, sino certeza, con lo cual también desaparece la teoría. Y creo que aqui hablamos de teoría, de hipótesis, así que lo único que se puede aportar son indicios y reflexión, ya que los escritos de Platón, alguien que posiblemente utilice el método científico ha decretado que son un cuento, una invención. Lo que pasa es que ese alguien y seguidores no aportan una sola prueba de su afirmación. Las conjeturas siempre son hechas por sujetos y, por tanto, son subjetivas. Mayor conjetura es, por ejemplo, adjudicar la autoría de las pirámides de Dashur a Snofru, y es algo que se tiene aceptado sin problema, por más que no se disponga de una solo prueba... ¡invalidar la veracidad del relato de Platón no es más que otra conjetura! ¿Acaso han utilizado el método científico para datarlas y atribuirlas? Que más quisieran los egiptólogos que disponer de algo como el Critias o el Timeo para documentarlas; no tienen ni una sola línea. Que más quisieran que poder contar con la mitad de las referencias clásicas sobre Atlantis y poder aplicarlas a Dashur, o a Gizeh, o a... Sobre Atlantis contamos, nos guste o no, con el relato de Platón, para otras teorías (por ejemplo, la inversa) no se cuenta con nada pero se impone el dogma.

  10. #10 Ank 18 de jul. 2005

    Ah, se me olvidaba; por supuesto que el Critias y el Timeo son documentos históricos, si no ¿qué son?

  11. #11 Teshub 09 de ago. 2005

    Si no creemos en la existencia de la Atlántida, ¿por qué hemos de creer en la de Sócrates?. ¿Qué documento oficial ateniense, o escrito suyo existen?. Ninguno, creemos en Sócrates porque Jenofonte y Platón hablaron de él...sino, ¿de qué?. Y con la Atlántida pasa lo mismo, aquí el problema es que Aristóteles dijo que era un invento de Platón...y claro, si lo dice Aristóteles, pues quien va a discutirlo. Eso sí, que Teopompus de Quios (sobre un origen distinto, esta vez frigio, y llamándola Meropis), Diódoro de Sicilia, Proculus o Teofrasto de Lesbos hablen de la Atlántida resulta irrelevante, imagino. Quizás lo mejor sea dejar el propio testimonio de Séneca en su Medea, que sirvió de inspiración a Cristobal Colón: Venient annis saecula series, Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus, Tethysque novos detegat orbes; Nec sit terris ultima Thule.

  12. #12 A.M.Canto 10 de ago. 2005

    Sólo para avisar de que a la información inicial sobre este congreso se han incorporado hoy diversas novedades, algunas muy interesantes, como los resúmenes de diversas comunicaciones al mismo, que no dio tiempo de incluir antes de la "parada técnica" de Celtiberia.

  13. #13 toponi 11 de ago. 2005

    Saludos profesora. Sólo decirle que en la ilustración Atlántida 3, última hipótesis BBC 2004, dede de decir Hinojos (HUELVA). ¡ Menudo revuelo se montó en este pueblo cuando los medios de comunicación dieron la noticia!

  14. #14 A.M.Canto 11 de ago. 2005

    Saludos, Toponi, y gracias por indicarme el lapsus, ya está corregido.

  15. #15 Onnega 11 de ago. 2005

    Gracias por los abstracts, me parecieron muy entretenidos, hay desbarres a mazo. Aquí va otro de mi propia cosecha: ¿y si algunas caetras lusitanas son planos de la Atlántida, con los tres anillos y los cuatro canales, recuerdo que portan los guerreros como símbolo del origen de su civilización? Es que hay que leer cada cosa, y además en un congreso "científico". Enhorabuena a los de Hinojos porque seguro que allí hay algo, claro que no sé si es la Atlántida.

  16. #16 Airdargh 11 de ago. 2005

    Onnega: supongo que te refieres al símbolo de las “monedas de la caetra” de las “monetas castrensis” (tres anillos y cuatro canales) considerado tradicionalmente como el mismo símbolo que portaban en sus caetras ciertos guerreros galaicos? lusitanos? del NO. ibérico?... y que representaría lo que se venía considerandose un tipo de laberinto circular. Lo cierto es que, hasta donde tengo noticias yo, no han aparecido restos de caetra con este símbolo aunque si aparece en la caetra de una de las representaciones de un “guerrero luso-galaico” esculpidos en piedra, ya en época romana. No sé si has tenido ocasión de leer la disertación e interpretación que se hace de este símbolo ( en: http://www.arqweb.com/lucusaugusti/centro.asp. , donde, entre otras cosas, se concluye que más que ser un símbolo lusitano o galaico resulta serlo romano...: ---La moneda del Fin de la Tierra: Existen varias emisiones de "Moneta Castrensis" (moneda de carácter imperial, para pagar a la tropa) acuñadas en el N.O peninsular, durante el transcurso de las Guerras Cántabras, entre el 27 y el 23 a.C., en el territorio que sería posteriormente el convento lucense. El símbolo (de esta moneda) aparece en ese mismo momento en algunas tumbas de importantes dignatarios en Roma. Los especialistas italianos lo describen como un laberinto de forma circular y se encuentra expuesto en el Museo Capitolino de Roma en metopas que pertenecieron a un monumento funerario de Porta Flaminia y que reproduce de manera exacta el dibujo del reverso de las monedas Lucenses. Esto nos puede hacer pensar que el simbolismo que el dibujo poseía no es el señalado por los estudiosos como de un escudo ya que la tumba descrita no tiene ninguna relación con las guerras de Augusto en el N.O. de Hispania. Al mismo tiempo esta geometría de forma concéntrica fue muy apreciada por el propio Augusto y su alto valor simbólico fue determinante, en esos mismos años, en el momento de proyectar el edificio de su mausoleo en Roma. La planta del edificio que recibieron las cenizas del emperador y sus familiares recuerda de manera clara, incluso para un neófito en arquitectura, el dibujo que presentan las monedas de Lugo y las metopas de las tumbas romanas... Es bien sabido que desde mucho antes que Roma tomara posesión del N.O. peninsular este lugar geográfico estaba señalado como el Finis Terrae, el lugar donde el astro sol se ponía tras su recorrido diario desde el oriente. La futura Galaecia romana se desarrollaría en el territorio sagrado para los pueblos de la edad de Bronce. Un territorio donde el dios sol, Lugh, descansaba cada atardecer. El N.O. era pues el "territorio mausoleo" de las creencias de muchos pueblos europeos incluidos los latinos, y quizás por ello las monedas que Augusto utilizó para pagar los salarios de su conquista tiene en su anverso un símbolo circular con un alto valor simbólico para Roma. Augusto tuvo muy clara su empresa en la futura Gallaecia, desde el momento inicial de la conquista (27-23 a.C) sus decisiones tenían la finalidad de construir su ciudad sagrada, "Lucus Augusti" Las monedas que en parte sufragaron los gastos de la conquista tiene un valor simbólico común a otras monedas de similares condiciones, sin embargo la identificación de la forma circular concéntrica con la de un escudo es una simplificación del verdadero significado de lo representado. Mi hipótesis descarta esta interpretación y prefiere pensar que el verdadero significado del símbolo circular esta relacionado con la importancia que el territorio en disputa tenía para el propio emperador. El territorio que estaba llamado a recibir la construcción de Lucus Augusti, la futura Ciudad Sagrada de Augusto y capital del futuro convento lucense. Ese símbolo circular concéntrico antecede a la planta de la futura ciudad y se relaciona de manera directa con el edificio del mausoleo en construcción en Roma en ese mismo momento... etc. etc...--- Quizá no deje todo lo expuesto en este artículo de ser una conjetura, una interpretación más (aunque parece estar bien fundamentada). Puede que tu hipótesis, interesante y atractiva por cierto, sea igual de válida. Quizá te interese confrontar ambas (suponiendo que no conocieses ya ésta que la interpreta como símbolo romano) y con esa idea te remito esta información. Respecto al tema sobre la ubicación de La Atlántida: Desde luego debe resultar un asunto harto complicado y, sobre todo si se intenta tomar como referencia los escritos clásicos porque la verdad que los clásicos no estan de acuerdo ni siquiera en la situación del Océano, mientras unos, al principio, lo sitúan en el Mediterráneo, otros posteriormente lo hacen más allá de las Columnas de Hércules para acabar siendo este Océano el mar que rodea el orbe terrestre en la antigüedad, menudo lío...

  17. #17 A.M.Canto 12 de ago. 2005

    Como imaginaréis, hay un problema transitorio con la desasociación y asociación de imágenes a los artículos, pero supongo que Silberius lo arreglará lo antes posible. Mientras, como cada una lleva su número, el orden que pretendía es "Atlántida 1-6", que se puede ver apoyando el puntero simplemente. Dos de ellas proceden de un sitio que me ha llamado la atención (hay cientos o miles sobre Atlantis), que tiene bastante información y relativamente ordenada: http://skeptic.com/atlantis/atlantis1.html.

  18. #18 Teshub 12 de ago. 2005

    En mi opinión, la forma de las caetras augustianas no es sino una geometrización del mito del laberinto cretense. De hecho, los diseños de las monedas de Augusto son similares al de un mosaico gigante hallado en Vienne, Francia, en una mansión romana del 200-250 DC. En este caso, la forma es idéntica a la de la caetra, sólo difiere en que en el centro están las imágenes de Teseo y Ariadna. Ese mosaico forma parte de un conjunto dedicado a los trabajos de Hércules. Lo que no quita para que se otorgase un cierto poder esotérico o místico al laberinto, al fin y al cabo para los romanos sus antepasados culturales y mitológicos eran los cretenses. Aquí podeís ver una reproducción: http://www.das-labyrinth.de/klassisches/lf.html

  19. #19 A.M.Canto 12 de ago. 2005

    Sólo por precisar, y sin entrar en discusión alguna, que esto último ya me estaba sonando a algo y a alguien, y además no tiene nada que ver con el tema del artículo: Las monedas augusteas llamadas de la caetra no son iguales al mosaico de Vienne, y no tienen representado ningún laberinto, ni cretense ni galaico. Los romanos eran muy precisos conceptualmente, incluso cuando trabajaban a pequeña escala.

  20. #20 Livia 14 de ago. 2005

    No dejan de asombrar los tremendos esfuerzos empleados durante décadas y siglos en localizar la Atlántida, cuando está perfectamente claro que no tiene localización posible. Por ello encuentro cierta "contradictio in terminis" en el título "Congreso científico sobre la Atlántida", pues no me parece precisamente un congreso muy científico. Leed el trabajo de Vidal-Naquet, que tiene ya muchos años, y entenderéis el significado de la historia.

  21. #21 A.M.Canto 15 de ago. 2005

    Como responsable del título del artículo: Aparte de que dos de las reseñas de prensa que recogí lo definen así, realmente cuando se lee la lista de los 32 miembros del comité internacional y del comité directivo, puede comprobarse que 28 son profesores de instituciones universitarias y cuatro doctores de otros organismos, así como muchos de la centena de participantes. Creo que el conjunto se puede decir que entra dentro de "lo científico", y que ése ha sido el trabajo de filtro de trabajos del comité, independientemente de que se pueda escapar de ello alguna comunicación en concreto. Y en lo que de "no tiene localización posible" no estaría muy de acuerdo, simplemente nos faltan elementos o los que hay no se analizan bajo la perspectiva correcta. Tampoco se encontraba Troya, y se tenía por leyenda e invención de Homero, hasta que apareció.

  22. #22 soliman 15 de ago. 2005

    Los cientificos no son tontos, pero si muy interesados. Ellos saben donde vender su "pescado" interesadamente. ¿Quien paga más ahora, el gobierno griego? Pues pongamos en Milos el dichoso evento. No veo a ningun cientifico aleman ni americano, ni siquiera al prominente cubano-español que todos conocemos, Sr. Diaz-Montexano, el único que ha sabido dar carta de naturaleza a varios túneles sin salida del mito atlante. Una vez más, la Sra.Canto, nos trae algo "muy de la tierra" , nos vende un evento "guiri" como de interesantisimo, cuando ¿cuantas veces se ha vilipendiado al tema atlante en estas páginas? No hay verguenza hermana, no tienes molares para digerir tan interesado articulo, no hay belfos para realizar una dura critica en este foro por miedo a la espada rampante de los moderadores del foro. Ya se sabe que van a dar más credibilidad a una "catedratica del saber" que a un aficionado, cosas del sistema ... ¡hay que tener estómagos, hermanos! En esto foro se critica el uniformismo historico de toda la vida, se critica la forma de darnos en la cabeza con el libro de historia de toda la vida, la oficialidad historica que nos miente y tapa lo que no interesa a las "mentes pensantes e interesadas de siempre". Se estaba hablando demasiado ya de la Atlantida en el sur de España, ahora el marketing, la publicidad toca hacia otro lado, como no, vendamos el turismo insular del mar jónico, es mucho más lujoso que Chipiona o Matalascañas. Cuestion de gustos. Me quedo con Zahara de los Atunes. Y sus cuevas prehistoricas con sus pintadas y grafitis de hace chopecientos años, eso si que era atlantida. Igual, vete a saber, la Atlantida era un pueblo desparramado por todo el Mediterraneo, desde las Columnas de Hercules, en Tartessos, hasta Suria (actual Siria). La vision cientifica tiende a desvirtualizar un hecho historico y humano. Podran descubrir piedras y templos, pero la vision atlante de un hecho civilizador no me lo van a vender de esta manera. Prefiero mil veces las historias de Georgeos Diaz-Montexano a la forma de "meternos en vereda" de esta gente. Cuestion de gustos y formas.

  23. #23 soliman 15 de ago. 2005

    Los cientificos no son tontos, pero si muy interesados. Ellos saben donde vender su "pescado" interesadamente. ¿Quien paga más ahora, el gobierno griego? Pues pongamos en Milos el dichoso evento. No veo a ningun cientifico aleman ni americano, ni siquiera al prominente cubano-español que todos conocemos, Sr. Diaz-Montexano, el único que ha sabido dar carta de naturaleza a varios túneles sin salida del mito atlante. Una vez más, la Sra.Canto, nos trae algo "muy de la tierra" , nos vende un evento "guiri" como de interesantisimo, cuando ¿cuantas veces se ha vilipendiado al tema atlante en estas páginas? No hay verguenza hermana, no tienes molares para digerir tan interesado articulo, no hay belfos para realizar una dura critica en este foro por miedo a la espada rampante de los moderadores del foro. Ya se sabe que van a dar más credibilidad a una "catedratica del saber" que a un aficionado, cosas del sistema ... ¡hay que tener estómagos, hermanos! En esto foro se critica el uniformismo historico de toda la vida, se critica la forma de darnos en la cabeza con el libro de historia de toda la vida, la oficialidad historica que nos miente y tapa lo que no interesa a las "mentes pensantes e interesadas de siempre". Se estaba hablando demasiado ya de la Atlantida en el sur de España, ahora el marketing, la publicidad toca hacia otro lado, como no, vendamos el turismo insular del mar jónico, es mucho más lujoso que Chipiona o Matalascañas. Cuestion de gustos. Me quedo con Zahara de los Atunes. Y sus cuevas prehistoricas con sus pintadas y grafitis de hace chopecientos años, eso si que era atlantida. Igual, vete a saber, la Atlantida era un pueblo desparramado por todo el Mediterraneo, desde las Columnas de Hercules, en Tartessos, hasta Suria (actual Siria). La vision cientifica tiende a desvirtualizar un hecho historico y humano. Podran descubrir piedras y templos, pero la vision atlante de un hecho civilizador no me lo van a vender de esta manera. Prefiero mil veces las historias de Georgeos Diaz-Montexano a la forma de "meternos en vereda" de esta gente. Cuestion de gustos y formas.

  24. #24 soliman 15 de ago. 2005

    Los cientificos no son tontos, pero si muy interesados. Ellos saben donde vender su "pescado" interesadamente. ¿Quien paga más ahora, el gobierno griego? Pues pongamos en Milos el dichoso evento. No veo a ningun cientifico aleman ni americano, ni siquiera al prominente cubano-español que todos conocemos, Sr. Diaz-Montexano, el único que ha sabido dar carta de naturaleza a varios túneles sin salida del mito atlante. Una vez más, la Sra.Canto, nos trae algo "muy de la tierra" , nos vende un evento "guiri" como de interesantisimo, cuando ¿cuantas veces se ha vilipendiado al tema atlante en estas páginas? No hay verguenza hermana, no tienes molares para digerir tan interesado articulo, no hay belfos para realizar una dura critica en este foro por miedo a la espada rampante de los moderadores del foro. Ya se sabe que van a dar más credibilidad a una "catedratica del saber" que a un aficionado, cosas del sistema ... ¡hay que tener estómagos, hermanos! En esto foro se critica el uniformismo historico de toda la vida, se critica la forma de darnos en la cabeza con el libro de historia de toda la vida, la oficialidad historica que nos miente y tapa lo que no interesa a las "mentes pensantes e interesadas de siempre". Se estaba hablando demasiado ya de la Atlantida en el sur de España, ahora el marketing, la publicidad toca hacia otro lado, como no, vendamos el turismo insular del mar jónico, es mucho más lujoso que Chipiona o Matalascañas. Cuestion de gustos. Me quedo con Zahara de los Atunes. Y sus cuevas prehistoricas con sus pintadas y grafitis de hace chopecientos años, eso si que era atlantida. Igual, vete a saber, la Atlantida era un pueblo desparramado por todo el Mediterraneo, desde las Columnas de Hercules, en Tartessos, hasta Suria (actual Siria). La vision cientifica tiende a desvirtualizar un hecho historico y humano. Podran descubrir piedras y templos, pero la vision atlante de un hecho civilizador no me lo van a vender de esta manera. Prefiero mil veces las historias de Georgeos Diaz-Montexano a la forma de "meternos en vereda" de esta gente. Cuestion de gustos y formas.

  25. #25 Ego 15 de ago. 2005

    Estimado Solimán, le invito a obviar las referencias personales con el fin de que el debate no se envenene. Si tiene algún argumento (1) a favor o encontra, mafiniéstelo, que será bien recibido, si solo quiere quejarse y especular dirígase al X-presate pero evite intervenir en los foros. (1) Razonamiento que se emplea para probar o demostrar una proposición, o bien para convencer a alguien de aquello que se afirma o se niega. Salud.

  26. #26 Livia 15 de ago. 2005

    Pues es curioso que los congresos científicos nunca ponen ese adjetivo en su título, por la sencilla razón de que se da por supuesto, como el valor en la mili que decían antes.

  27. #27 Ank 16 de ago. 2005

    Que sí, pero nada va a dejar de ser lo que es por mucho calificativo que pongamos.

  28. #28 Brigantinus 16 de ago. 2005

    ¿Díaz-Montexano? ¿El que defendía que el acueducto de Segovia y los verracos eran obras "atlantes"? ¿El que montó el numerito de las "inscripciones celtas" en el castro de Elviña? Ese buen señor ya tiene los medios de expresión apropiados (el programa de Iker Jiménez y demás) Y yo aún estoy esperando pruebas de esa supuesta isla del tamaño de Extremadura que existía frente a las costas gallegas y de cuya existencia decía tener pruebas en su web (sin especificarlas)

  29. #29 darius 16 de ago. 2005

    ¿Y del presupuesto continente Mu que se sabe?

  30. #30 soliman 17 de ago. 2005

    Oido cocina (Ego). Como supondrás, Brigantinus, no todo lo que dice Georgeos es para mi cierto. Lo que si me parece pausible es lo de la Atlantis-Iberia. ¿Pruebas? Un montón. Más que las otras. No obstante, es razonable tambien opinar lo contrario. La salud del buen opinar puede tener huéspedes buenos y malos. La cuestión es tener huéspedes. ¿Ya no os acordais que hace años no podiasmos ni opinar sobre esto mismo que nos arropa? Mas salud aún (Ego) Á ver si algun dia me dices porqué os cargásteis el articulo sobre la lápida de Xativa. ¿Hicisteis caso a quien gritó más? ¿A quien daba más miedo? Es una cosa que me anerva mi curiosidad, vaya.

  31. #31 soliman 17 de ago. 2005

    MU, fue la antigua Lemuria. Poblada por los Lemures. Antiguo continente hundido en el oceano Indico. Que igual que la Atlantida se hundio en la mar oceana para no volver más. Esto parece que ocurrio antes que se hundiera Poseidonis. Defensores hay a porrillo. Recientemente vi un documental sobre unos arqueologos submarinos que habien encontrado en una isla del sur de Japon un pedazo de monumento esculpido a pico y pala, y haciendo un descomunal templo, en plena montaña de roca hundida a unos 30 metros. Estuvieron midiendo y rechazando hipotesis artificiales por doquier. LLevaron a un ultraconservador arqueologo descreido de toda leyenda y origen artificial de todo lo hundido en el mar. Le mostraron pruebas concluyentes sobre oceanografia, geologia submarina, arqueologia, etc. y el colega dijo al final, y muy a su pesar que si, que era concluyentemente un monumento de origen humano, que el mar nunca habia podido esculpir semejante templo de tal naturaleza ciclopea sin dejar los tuneles limpios como estaban (era para verlo). No dispongo de url ni sitio web para dirigiros, pero fue en Discovery Channel. Tambien salió otro monumento en el sur de la India de parecida naturaleza, aunque un poco más pequeño. Se veian las terrazas y los asentamientos artificiales. Acordaros que con el tsunami de diciembre pasado apareció un templo indú que llevaba casi 1500 años desaparecido. Quien no dice que un pedazo de tsunami no acabo con todo un subcontinente o con una isla en el Indico.

  32. #32 soliman 17 de ago. 2005

    Amigo Brigantinus, es verdad que existe un tipo de analisis para saber cuanto tiempo llevan las piedras unidas entre si? ¿Es verdad que este tipo de analisis se ha establecido para aquellos monumentos de imposible datación? ¿Si los romanos anotaban todo y llevaban una exaustiva contabilidad, donde están los del acueducto de Segovia? ¿Se sabe de otra semejante obra arquitectonica en el universo romano conocido? Te lo pregunto sin jactancia y con ganas de saber y conocer. Porque a mi no me salen las cuentas. Si las piedras llevaran unidas 2500 años, digo yo, porque se han solidificaco hasta tal extremo. No estaria bien que la historia tambien se apoyara en otras disciplinas cuando fallan los medios "intelectuales" de saber quien y qué dijo este o el otro. Si nos atenemos a lo que se escribe y lo que se plasma en papel o arcilla, haberse se han escrito muchas imbecilidades. En aquella época igual no tenian tiempo ni medios para tal, pero tal como lo hacian los romanos, porque no se utilizan medios interdisciplinares para atestiguar lo que unió a la piedra antes de negarlo todo, enacerbar la ceja y misitar una sonrisa complice de sabelotodo. Te digo una cosa, cada vez que se más, más se que no se nada. Y eso que leo un monton. Los verracos, si se puede medir que la lluvia en 3000 años no ha hecho semajante huella en ese tipo de piedra, ¿porque no sale el investigador de turno de la universidad de Salamanca a rebatir de una vez el tema? Que yo sepa todos han hecho mutis por el foro. O es que no utilizan los foros de internet y se contentan con sonreir en la cafeteria del departamento. ¿Georgeos Diaz-Montexano? ¡el pobre! Es una pena, que investigue que investigue ... nosotros con negarlo.

  33. #33 Brigantinus 17 de ago. 2005

    1-"Los romanos anotaban todo y llevaban una exhaustiva contabilidad, donde están los del acueducto de Segovia" Ni idea. Pero te aclaro que en cuestiones de datos sobre contabilidad, tampoco conservamos los de las murallas de Lugo, la Domus Aurea de Neron, la Torre de Hércules, los fuertes construidos a lo largo del limes, el puerto de Cesarea... lo anómalo sería que alguna de esas contabilidades llegara hasta hoy. 2-Las piedras no llevan unidas 2500 años, ya que el acueducto es de época romana, y por lo tanto, no llega a los 2000 años. Y sobre sus teorías de que no se aprecian las junturas de los bloques... yo diría que sí se aprecian. Y a simple vista, además. 3- Más pruebas: -Todas las medidas del acueducto se basan en el pie romano (29,6 cms) -Los sillares están tallados según la técnica de la anathyrosis, común en la arquitectura romana. -El que sea una obra "única" no prueba nada. También es única la "fábrica" que los romanos construyeron en el sur de las Galias, con un montón de molinos de agua superpuestos unos a otros para obtener cantidades ingentes de harina. Y era único el Coliseo de Roma. Había muchos otros coliseos, pero ninguno como el de Roma. Había muchos otros acueductos, pero no ha llegado hasta nosotros ninguno tan bien conservado ni tan entero como el de Segovia (lo que no quiere decir que no los hubiera, sino que no ha llegado hasta nosotros) Te recomiendo que le eches un vistazo a esta página http://traianus.rediris.es/ En concreto, la parte relativa al Acueducto de Segovia. Sobre los verracos... creo que basta echarles un vistazo para comprobar que la erosión sí ha hecho mella en ellos. Y no sólo la de la lluvia. Más que nada, porque la zona donde están tampoco es de las de mayor índice pluviométrico de España (ya me gustaría ver lo que quedaba de ellos si estuvieran en Galicia o el País Vasco) Sin olvidar que los verracos no tienen 3000 años. Sobre lo de los edificios del sur de Japón... supongo que te refieres a las "pirámides" de Yonaguni. Lo curioso del asunto es que incluso Robert Schoch, un geólogo que se atrevió a decir que la Esfinge de Gizeh tenía 8000 años y que es uno de los gurús de los aficionados a los temas "misteriosos" ha afirmado que Yonaguni es obra de la Naturaleza. Después de ver la Fingal´s Cave y la Giants´ Causeway, yo también me lo creo.

  34. #34 darius 17 de ago. 2005

    Gracias por la respuesta Soliman.

  35. #35 soliman 17 de ago. 2005

    Buen vinculo para la ciudad sumergida de Yonaguni. http://es.clearharmony.net/articles/200403/2738.html

  36. #36 Ego 17 de ago. 2005

    Si esas fotos no están trucadas, a mi que no me cuenten batallas, y mucho menos el payaso de Robert Schoch, en esas formaciones el hombre ha metido mano. Salud.

  37. #37 Ank 17 de ago. 2005

    Ignoro si Schoch (1) es un payaso (más abajo cuelgo un texto suyo para que se le conozca mejor), lo que sí sé es que su curriculum es impecable y que actualmente trabaja, entre otras cosas, como docente universitario en USA. De su vida y milagros, aparte de una somera biografía y sus trabajos en relación con con el comentario de Brigantinus, tampoco sé mucho. El caso es que sí conozco las investigaciones que, junto a Dobecki, llevó a cabo en la Meseta de Giza en las que concluyó con una antigüedad para la Esfinge mucho mayor de la, digamos, ortodoxamente (que no científicamente ni muchísimo menos) admitida, basándose en la erosión de la Esfinge, su cubeta (que califica como ejemplo de libro) y otros restos de la zona de Giza y Saqqara; tumbas de adobe datadas como de la misma época de la Esfinge apenas presentan erosión mientras que la caliza de la cubeta donde se aloja la Esfinge presenta marcas erosivas de agua de hasta medio metro de profundidad. Allí, actualmente, la pluviometría es de 25 mm/año. Para obtener la erosión que presenta la Esfinge se necesita un régimen de lluvias muy superior, máxime si se tiene en cuenta que el monumento ha estado tapado por la arena la mayor parte del tiempo histórico conocido, por tanto no me parece desacertado concederle algunos miles de añitos más. Actualmente la Esfinge está atribuída a Kefrén sin ninguna prueba o razón de peso, en tanto que se ignora el mensaje sobre ella de la Estela del Inventario (cuidado con las traducciones parciales, recomiendo la de Fix). Hawass, autoridad máxima en arqueología en Egipto y supervisor de los trabajos en Giza, despidió fulminantemente a Schoch (después de haberle autorizado a examinar la Esfinge) cuando éste publicó sus conclusiones. Su pecado fue no coincidir con las tesis académicas de base decimonónica o anterior. Y yo me pregunto qué puede saber Hawass de geología. De Georgeos (no comment) lo que me sorprende es que lo que postula se tome como hipótesis suya propia, como si fuese algo anteriormente desconocido y, ahora, totalmente novedoso y original. Por favor, la ubicación de Atlantis se conoce de siempre, Platón se encargó de dejarlo muy claro; junto a las columnas de Hércules, frente al Atlas, por el golfo de Cádiz o aledaños, vamos. Esto lo sabíamos todos o casi todos. Aparte de esto ¿dice algo más?, porque la posible conexión tartésica en base a las afirmaciones de Estrabón, también estaba más que cantada. ¿Algo más? De todos modos, ¿por qué mezclar nombres como los de Jorgito Díaz, Georgeos para los amigos, sus ideas sobre el acueducto, y Schoch y sus hipótesis sobre la Esfinge, Yonaguni... cuando lo que se trata de es considerar si Atlantis es válida o no como teoría?. Parece como si se quisiera vincular esta posible validez all prestigio de determinada persona para, así, descalificar o no la teoría en base a la opiniones que se tienen como de payaso, citando la palabra usada por un contertulio. Ego (esa foto de Yonaguni no está trucada, puedes ver muchas más en la red, y efectivamente parece que ahí está la mano del hombre, el problema es que para ello esa zona debió estar emergida y para ello hay que tirar algunos añitos más para atrás, digamos unos diez o doce mil) ¿conoces los estudios de Schoch en Giza? Ahí tienes un resumen: (1).- Los estudiosos que mantienen el hecho circunstancial de que Kefrén fue quien edificó la Esfinge están olvidando o no teniendo en cuenta una importante evidencia además de la mía propia. Por ejemplo, tomemos el problema de la llamada Estela del Inventario, que también es conocida como la Estela de la Hija de Keops. La inscripción de la estela, que data del siglo VI o VII a.C. y pretende ser una copia de un texto del Imperio Antiguo, dice que la Esfinge ya existía en tiempos de Keops, quien tomó el trono de Egipto treinta y un años antes que Kefrén. De acuerdo con Selim Hassam (curiosamente, el arqueólogo que antes defendió el argumento de que Kefrén construyó la Esfinge, basándose en su trabajo de campo de la década de 1930) la inscripción sigue diciendo que Keops reparó el tocado de la Esfinge después de que fuera golpeado por un rayo o un haz de luz, una descripción que es congruente con las evidencias del trabajo de restauración del Imperio Antiguo realizado tanto sobre la Esfinge como sobre los templos del Valle y de la Esfinge. Los egiptólogos contemporáneos rechazan que la Estela del Inventario sea una antigua falsificación y, sin embargo, rechazan aceptar que sea auténtica. Para hacer eso, por supuesto, deberían dar la vuelta a la sabiduría tradicional. Después tenemos los testimonios de los antiguos. Selim Hassan investigó todas las referencias literarias al monumento desde los primeros escritos conocidos hasta la época romana. Todos ellos situaban a la Esfinge en una era anterior a las pirámides de Giza. De hecho, las tradiciones orales de algunos de los pueblos cercanos a Giza mantienen que la Esfinge es, al menos cinco mil años, anterior a Kefrén. La Estela del Inventario, la investigación de la literatura clásica de Hassam y las tradiciones locales sólo son pruebas circunstanciales. Sin embargo, son congruentes no sólo con mi investigación, sino también con dos estudios geológicos más recientes, en Giza, que señalan que la Gran Esfinge es mucho más antigua que Kefrén. En Inscription: Journal of Anncient Egypt, el geólogo David Coxill confirma mis observaciones sobre las marcas de erosión en Giza, evalúa los argumentos en contra y sostiene mi hipótesis de que la Esfinge debe datar de un tiempo de fuertes lluvias bastante anterior al Imperio Antiguo. Coxill duda en llevar más atrás la fecha hasta el período entre 5000 y 7000 a.C. basándose en los datos sismológicos, pero está de acuerdo en que la Esfinge «es claramente más antigua que la datación tradicional». Lo que no dice es cuánto más antigua. Colin Reader, un ingeniero en geología formado en la Universidad de Londres, llega a una conclusión similar siguiendo un meticuloso estudio de las marcas de erosión de Giza y de la hidrología de la meseta. Además, añada una importante prueba física. Coincidiendo con mi análisis de las marcas de erosión, Reader señala acertadamente que la cubeta está más severamente dañada y erosionada por las precipitaciones en su extremo oesta, en el área posterior (esto es, al oeste) al muro más bajo, que presumiblemente fue esculpido cuando Kefrén excavó por completo la parte trasera de la Esfinge y restauró la estatua. La explicación para esta erosión especialmente severa y este deterioro es el deslizamiento por la superficie de las lluvias de las tormentas. Como la Meseta de Giza se inclina en descenso desde el norte hacia el oeste, las aguas se dirigían directamente hacia y a lo largo de la cubeta de la Esfinge en su camino hacia el Valle del Nilo, o al menos eso hicieron hasta el reinado de Keops (alrededor de 2551-2528 a.C.). Este faraón retiró grandes cantidades de piedra de las canteras que estaban en la ladera justo encima de la cubeta de la Esfinge. Después de que las canteras fueran abandonadas, la arena traida por el viento las inundó y absorbió cualquier corriente que se deslizara hacia la cubeta de la Esfinge. Por lo tanto, la intensa erosión y degradación del extremo oeste de la cubeta de la Esfinge tuvo que producirse durante un período anterior a que se excavaran las canteras durante el reinado de Keops. Reader también defiende que la Esfinge no es el único monumento de Giza que necesita ser datado de nuevo. De acuerdo con su análisis, la Calzada de Kefrén (que sube desde la zona de la Esfinge hacia el Templo Mortuorio del lado este de la pirámide de Kefrén), una parte del propio Templo Mortuorio y el Templo de la Efinge son anteriores a Kefrén, que es considerado por la egiptología tradicional el responsable de todos ellos. Curiosamente, John Anthony West y yo, también habíamos llegado antes a la conclusión de que esa parte del Templo Mortuorio es anterior a Kefrén, pero, finalmente, yo no había hablado de esa idea en público ni la había publicado, porque quería reunir antes más pruebas. Reader ha llegado a la misma conslusión por su cuenta, el tipo de confirmación independiente que emociona a un científico. Reader se muestra poco dispuesto a atrasar la fecha de la Esfinge más allá de la segunda mitad del Período Predinástico, o alrededor de 2800-2600 a.C. Antes de esta época, señala Reader, los antiguos egipcios no trabajaban la piedra como se ve en la Esfinge, en los templos del Valle y otras construcciones asociadas a la Esfinge. En este punto, estoy convencido de que Reader está equivocado y que la Esfinge es más antigua de lo que él está dispuesto a aceptar a pesar de sus propias y excelentes pruebas. Si la Esfinge fue esculpida en el período de 2800-2600 a.C., entonces tuvo que haber suficientes precipitaciones, y fuertes, de agua durante ese tiempo como para erosionar tan severamente el monumento y su recinto. No obstante, el auge del período de lluvioso terminó hacia el 3000 a.C. y Egipto ya seguía un muy sólido camino para convertirse en un desierto hacia el 2800 a.C. Las tumbas de adobe llamadas mastabas, construídas en la Meseta de Sakkara, sólo a trece kilómetros subiendo el Nilo desde Giza, y datadas indiscutiblemente hacia el 2800 a.C. muestran una erosión muy ligera, incluso aunque están construídas en material mucho más suave y vulnerable y estaban expuestas al mismo modelo climático. Simplemente, no es posible que la Esfinge pudiera ser esculpida como muy tarde entre el 200 y el 2600 a.C. y se deteriorara tanto bajo las escasas lluvias como para necesitar una intensa reparación en la época en la que Keops estaba construyendo su pirámide, alrededor del 2550-2530 a.C. Además, la piedra se usaba en arquitectura en Oriente Medio y Egipto bastante antes del 2800 a.C. La antigua ciudad de Jericó, situada en la orilla oeste del Jordán, a unos ciento veinticinco kilométros al este del Delta del Nilo y que data del 8300 a.C., fue cercada por un muro de piedra de dos metros de grosor y al menos seis metros de altura, así como por un foso de nueve metros de ancho y tres metros de profundidad excavado en piedra maciza. Una compleja ruina en Playa Nabta, en desierto oeste del sur de Egipto, presenta una serie de grandes bloques, o megalitos, de piedra alineados astronómicamente -algunos alcanzan los tres metros de altura- que datan de entre el 4500 y el 4000 a.C. Los egipcios eran suficientemente expertos en el trabajo de la piedra como para erigir los monumentos de Giza bastante antes del 2800 a.C. A pesar del desacuerdo sobre la época de la construcción, tanto Reader como Coxill corroboran mis observaciones fundamentalmente sobre la Esfinge. El monumento pertenece a un tiempo muy anterior al de Kefrén". © Robert M. Schoch 2003

  38. #38 soliman 18 de ago. 2005

    ¿Todo el mundo es payaso cuando saca las piernas del tiesto académico? Si esto fuera así, cientos si no miles de cientificos y hombres de ciencia lo han sido; mas lo que pasa que con el transcurrir del tiempo se produce una evolución de las ideas y lo que hoy es heterodoxo mañana es la más pura ortodoxia. ¡Que poca memoria tenemos! Desde la ciencia médica, la tecnológica (el hombre jamas podrá volar, no podrá ir más deprisa que un caballo ...!!) a las más puras ciencias fisicas y nucleares (aceleradores de particular, fisica cuántica, etc.), las ciencias humanas, todas en su momento parecieron bodrios y producian urticaria a la comunidad cientifica y a las personas "creidas" de tener el saber. Al margen de que este señor pueda producir risa, hay dos tipos de payasos los clown y los tristes. Pues hay quien le da pena pensar que la ortodoxia no deja que una corriente multidisciplinar pueda siquiera opinar sobre un objeto o monumento, sea el que sea. El hombre ha avanzado gracias a las mentes abiertas, a hombres que se han atrevido a contestar lo "oficial", a no ser inmovilistas, a avanzar pese a quien pese, y muy a su pesar, ellos son los primeros que han sido interpelados y apartados del "mundillo académico", pese a ello (vienen de alli), han seguido buscando su ideal (fama, dinero, saber, investigar, conocer, etc.). Dejadlos hacer. No tenemos edad suficiente para poder ver la solucion a estos enigmas, pasaran mas de 100 años para que se empiecen a ver resultados. Para qué adelantar nada. El hombre viajó a la Luna cuando 20 años antes estaba enfrascado en la más terrorifica guerra jamás habida en el planeta. ¡Nosotros, qué sabemos! Hay multitud de hallazgos arqueológicos y paleontropológicos ocultados por los representantes de la "ciencia oficial", representantes del Miedo y de la Impostura. La Historia está llena de páginas ocultas por el celo de los manipuladores. Chapó Ank. Estoy contigo en lo de arriba expuesto.

  39. #39 Brigantinus 18 de ago. 2005

    No os fiéis, que la naturaleza da muchas sorpresas: acordáos de la "cara de Marte" o de la "calzada de Bimini" (cuyo origen natural está demostrado), o de una península italiana en forma de pierna humana enfundada en bota de tacón. Fijaos en estos planos de Yonaguni. http://www.physics.leidenuniv.nl/userwebs/ruud/xternal/index.html?underwater_ruins/yonaguni/linkmap.htm Estoy de acuerdo en que de buenas a primeras parecen de factura humana. El caso es que si uno se para a mirar bien, ve que la cosa no tiene mucho sentido. O la civilización que levantó Yonaguni fueron los precursores del cubismo, o la "estructura" no tiene ni pies ni cabeza. Es cierto que las "paredes" y las "escaleras" parecen hechas por hombres, pero la estructura en su conjunto no tiene sentido alguno. Incluso las escaleras no parecen tener lógica. Algunos escalones parecen insalvables. La capacidad escultórica del mar suele jugar malas pasadas.

  40. #40 Teshub 18 de ago. 2005

    Sobre todo porque el hombre pudo viajar a la luna gracias a las armas de guerra nazis, que se habían perfeccionado durante esa guerra tan terrorífica...el cohete saturno no era sino una V2 modificada. Y ya que revisamos la ciencia oficial, quizás la II guerra mundial no fuese la guerra más terrorífica vivida sobre este planeta...si Sodoma y Gomorra fueron destruidas por bombas atómicas y existen paredes de piedra construidas por el hombre y cristalizadas en la India (piedra que se supone que sólo cristaliza a 4 ó 5000º)...pero con esto volveríamos a cuestionar qué fue la Atlántida. Las teorías de Schoch me parecen muy interesantes, pero entonces habría que concluir que la esfinge no la construyeron los egipcios (hacia el 7000 AC supuestamente no existía nada que pudiese llamarse Egipto), sino algo relacionado con esa civilización megalítica europeo-mediterránea responsable de la Gigantía de Malta o de Stonehenge. Y entonces, la apariencia de la esfinge, ¿sería la misma que en la actualidad, o realmente el monumento tenía otros rasgos y otros tocados?. Por otra parte, siempre me ha intrigado la datación popular de Jericó, hacia el 7000 AC...¿qué pruebas arqueológicas hay de ello?. Porque según tengo entendido, el gobierno israleita nunca ha dejado excavar en Jericó

  41. #41 Onnega 18 de ago. 2005

    Supongo que el gran pedrolo de Giza ya estaba allí antes de que existiesen los egipcios, y el ser humano, o sea que ha tenido tiempo más que suficiente para erosionarse por la base y por todas partes. ¿Y si los egipcios aprovecharon la forma sugerente para construir la esfinge modelando o añadiendo (no sé muy bien) la parte superior, y dejaron la inferior tal cual?

  42. #42 soliman 18 de ago. 2005

    Hay un documental que la Revista Año Cero regaló hace unos meses, que un tipo apostaba a que la Esfinge tenía no menos de 8000 años y no mas de 12000. Debido a la gran anomalia en cuanto al tamaño de la cabeza con el resto del cuerpo de león, este señor decia, documentándolo con dibujos, que antiguamente era realmente un león y que luego Kefren la esculpió a su semejanza. Aunque luego salió una cientifica de una universidad inglesa, especializada en morfologia facial, diciendo que comparándo la esfinge con los rasgos morfologicos de una escultura en diorita que existe de Kefren hay rasgos que no encajan demasiado. Pero lo que si se dejo entreveer es que antiguamente la Esfinge tenia otra cabeza. Amigo Brigantinus, hay por ahi una frase muy afamada en circulos espirituales que dice: "Quien cierra sus oídos a la mentira no deja que entre la Verdad". Las verdades no siempre son absolutas, solo hay un Absoluto, Siempre Existente, el Uno Sin Segundo, Allah. Qué construcciones megalíticas tienen sentido racional. ¿Stonhenge tiene sentido racional? ¿Es racional la astrologia para un astronomo? ¿Es racional la alquimia para un profesor de quimica de facultad? ¿Es racional la forma de construir de unos "gigantes" para unos "enanos"? China. Provincia de Canton. Se tarda en hacer el censo oficial 10 años. 45.000 funcionarios del estado se embarcan, van a pie, a caballo, o a land-rover, para tan siquiera contar cuantos son de 10 en 10 años. Año 1997, un funcionario toma por casualidad un atajo por una montaña y se encuentra con una alde perdida en la montaña en un valle perdido. La sociedad que se encuentra está regida por las mujeres. Ellas con las que mandan, hacen y deshacen. Un matriarcado en el s.XXI. Al margen de la anecdota (verdadera). Los funcionarios chinos casi no se podian entender con ellos, hablaban un dialecto mandarin del medievo. La forma de pensar, ni hablamos. POr la noche los hombres (entre los 15 a los 80 años) se reunen en la plaza del pueblo a esperar a ser elegido por una mujer, Estos ostentan un pañuelo blanco y al serle arrebatado por la mujer en cuestión se va con ella a yacer esa noche. El tema es que una mujer puede coger más de un pañuelo, si quiere. Entendible para nuestra sociedad y sistema. Eso es una anecdota, pero en pleno siglo XXI. Brigantinus, amigo ... ¿Como vas a encajar la forma de pensar de unos antiquisimos hombres con respecto a nuestra cartesiana forma de pensar y vivir? Imagínate tú que eres culto y educado, y te parece inverosimil, que iba a decir a un iletrado cani (cuello y brazos llenos de oro) sobre la forma de la arquitectura de aquellos gigantes de Mu. No puedes comparar. No por el tamaño, sino el qué era eso y para qué. El quien, ya hasta lo obvio. El buen dudar en positivo tambien, hermano.

  43. #43 tm 18 de ago. 2005

    http://www.northantrim.com/giantscauseway.htm http://www.msoft.it/pages/casulini/mc108.htm

  44. #44 soliman 18 de ago. 2005

    “La duda es el principio de la Sabiduría”. Aristóteles

  45. #45 Brigantinus 18 de ago. 2005

    Si eso es precisamente lo que hago: dudar. Dudar de las teorías que postulan los primeros investigadores que pasan, sin contrastar, con el único objetivo de hacerse un nombre. En los últimos tiempos está de moda dudar de la ciencia, la historia.. "oficial". Para mí el paradigma del asunto es "El Código Da Vinci" : mucha gente se cree a pies juntillas lo que dice. A pesar de que cualquier persona que tenga un cierto conocimiento -por ejemplo- sobre la doctrina cátara, sabe que ellos nunca podrían haber sido custodios de ningún "Grial" fuera cáliz o linaje sagrado, ya que ambas cosas chocaban de plano con los principios fundamentales de su teoría. Pero es igual. El señor Brown se está forrando. Si lo que dice es cierto, nos revela verdad que la malvada historia oficial nos niega. si no lo es, no pasa nada, porque ya deja claro que es todo ficción. Eso sí, en cuanto a hacer caja, que le quiten lo bailao. A mí toda esta historia me parece más o menos lo mismo. La ciencia oficial parece endogámica y elitista. No niego que lo sea. A mí también me parece mal que Mesopotamia siga apareciendo como cuna de la escritura, cuando en los Balcanes, dos mil años antes, ya existían sistemas de escritura, rudimentarios, pero sistemas de escritura. Pero ello no es justificación para caer en manos del primer iluminado que pasa. El señor Hancock y compañía, lejos de revelarnos verdades ocultas, se está forrando a base de publicar obras de pseudo-investigación. Haciendo afirmaciones que no están contrastadas. Y ahí está la clave. La Historia "oficial" hasta ahora me convence. Mientras el señor Hancock no me ofrezca más datos para contrastar, te hago caso solimán: dudo. Dudo de sus teorías y de sus argumentos. Incluso la Esfinge que algunos aceptan aquí aceptan que tenga no sé cuántos miles de años es simétrica. Stonehenge es simétrico. ¿Por qué esa supuesta pirámide no tiene ni pies ni cabeza? ¿Por qué no es más que una acumulación de plataformas sin ton ni son, de supuestas escaleras dalinianas, con todos los escalones de distinto tamaño y altura? Cualquier manifestación artística del Paleolítico, mueble o inmueble por basta que sea, resulta más armoniosa. ¿Cuántos miles de años hace que la zona de Yonaguni está sumergida? ¿Hay algún indicio arqueológico en tierra firme que corrobore el hallazgo mediante estudios contrastados? ¿Al menos está demostrada la presencia de seres humanos en la zona ya por aquel entonces? ¿Por qué no hay restos de estatuas ciclópeas que aporten más luz? ¿Es necesaria la existencia de una cultura madre para explicar que en distintas zonas de la Tierra donde abundan las piedras de gran tamaño, el ser humano decidiera levantar edificaciones con piedras de gran tamaño? Por cierto, el mito de Mu es perfectamente explicable. La Atlántida al menos tiene un padre "decente" como Platón. Lo de Mu fue cosa de un oficial británico victoriano demasiado aficionado a la teosofía. Lo de Lemuria... un intento de explicar por qué había lemures sólo en Madagascar y la India. Antes de que Wegener hablara de la deriva continental, sólo cabía explicarlo mediante un puente de tierra que se habría hundido. Con Darwin hablando ya de la evolución, y pidiendoles los creacionistas unas pruebas que aún no poseían (el descubrimiento e investigación científica de homínidos sería posterior) a alguno se le ocurrió agarrarse a la idea de Lemuria como lugar donde a lo mejor se pudo desarrollar la evolución humana, pero ¡lástima! ese lugar se hundió. Resumiendo, mientras el enfoque de Hancock sea "yo tengo razón, pero los malvados científicos no me hacen ni caso, compren mis libros que en ellos está la verdad", personalmente, no trago lo de los templos de Yonaguni, ni las pirámides de diez mil años, ni los dioses sumerios extraterrestres ni demás.

  46. #46 Ank 19 de ago. 2005

    Onnega, la Esfinge es de una sola pieza. Es una enorme roca de caliza de buena calidad de la que sobresalía del terreno circundante solamente la parte correspondiente a la cabeza (esto es algo en lo que están de acuerdo todos, ortodoxos y no ortodoxos). Para esculpirla fue necesario excavar vaciando de piedra todo su alrededor, así hicieron una enorme cubeta dentro de la cual se ve la Esfinge. O sea, que esa ni cubeta ni el monumento podían estar ya erosionados cuando los construyeron. En http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/images/sphinx/06_sphinx_side_wall.jpg tenéis una excelente fotografía en la que se aprecia claramente la erosión en la cubeta que estudiaron Schoch, Dobecki, Reader y Coxill entre otros. Los egiptólogos ortodoxos de la línea dura y fundoacadémicos (con seguridad ignorantes en geología) niegan sus conclusiones, pero no dan un solo argumento que pueda rebatirlas y deberían ser conscientes que no se enfrentan a planteamientos de pardillos y cantamañanas, sino a especialista de titulación universitaria reconocidos en su campo. Pero creo que hablábamos de Atlantis, y ya se ha citado a Hancock ¿después viene Bauval?, porque el siguiente paso me temo que es meter a J.J. Benítez. Podemos citar a quien queramos, pero eso no invalida a Atlantis como hipótesis.

  47. #47 Brigantinus 19 de ago. 2005

    Sobre la erosión de la Esfinge, Thomas Aigner y K. Lal Gauri defendieron que se debió a la acción de partículas silíceas arrastradas por el viento. De hecho, no hace falta remontarse a tantos miles de años para explicar el desgaste de la Esfinge. La roca caliza en la que fue tallada no es precisamente de la mejor calidad, de modo que se degrada con mucha rapidez. En 1988 se llegó a desprender un fragmento de 3 toneladas.

  48. #48 Ank 19 de ago. 2005

    La erosión por partículas en suspensión en el viento producen marcas horizontales, en forma de estratos, y se han documentado bien en el cuello de la Esfinge que, junto su cabeza, son las partes del monumento que han estado expuestos a la acción del viento. No así el cuerpo, que ha estado enterrado en la arena y se le conocen actuaciones de reparación y mantenimiento por lo menos desde el Imperio Medio. Y no falta quien opina que la cabeza ha sufrido alguna "transformación" sobre la originalmente tallada. Se conocen actuaciones sobre este monumento desde la época Tutmosis (y alguna en época anterior que no recuerdo) y, salvo el cuello, es difícil apreciar que es lo que se debe a la erosión natural debido precisamente a esas actuaciones. Pero la enorme erosión en la cubeta no ofrece dudas; presenta marcas verticales que sólo puede producir el agua (véase la fotografía cuya dirección inserto en mi anterior mensaje). Según Schoch, la calidad de la caliza de la Esfinge es buena, quizá no tanto como la de Tura, pero buena. El fragmento a que te refieres es quizá la barba (¿cierto?) que actualmente está en el Museo Británico. Repito, creía que hablábamos de Atlantis, pero, en fin, quizá todo está relacionado :)

  49. #49 Teshub 19 de ago. 2005

    Bueno, realmente la existencia de Mu o de Lemuria no fue invento del oficial británico referido (Scott-Elliot), sino de un discípulo de Darwin, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919), naturalista alemán, que estipuló la teoría de un continente primigenio hundido en el índico para justificar la teoría de la evolución de Darwin frente a las objeciones que le plantearon respecto a que si el hombre había evolucionado, ¿donde estaban los fósiles de los protohumanos?. Así que Haeckel respondió que no los encontrábamos por la sencilla razón de que todos habían vivido en un continente que desapareció bajo las aguas, al que llamó Lemuria. Posteriormente, en 1888 una charlatana que vivió de casarse con un conde ruso, Elena Blavatsky (que a ciencia cierta no se sabe ni su origen, aunque se cree que era francesa y que se llamaba Helena Hahn -1831-1891) escribió un libro titulado The secret doctrine donde se inventó, según ella a partir de unos textos de rigveda sanscritos originariamente escritos en la Atlántida (un tal libro de Dyzan), la existencia del continente de Lemuria en el índico y el pacífico. Además fundó la secta de la Teosofía. Según Blavatsky, Lemuria habría existido hace unos 150 millones de años y estaría habitado por la tercera raza, bisexual y con un tercer ojo. Posteriormente, discípulos suyos justificaron la desaparición de Lemuria por la caída de la segunda luna sobre la tierra (es cierto que la cuenca del océano pacífico coincide con la forma de un astro que hubiera chocado contra la tierra). Y la prueba que aducen en favor de su teoría es la existencia de la venecia del pacífico, Nan Matol, en Ponapé o Ponhpei (capital de Micronesia y posesión española hasta que la vendimos en 1899 a Alemania. Ya en 1885 España la había constituido como la capital regional), una ciudad sobre islas artificiales construida con bloques ciclópeos de basalto, que según los teósofos sería una de las siete ciudades de Lemuria. Lo único cierto es que nadie sabe para qué se construyó esa ciudad ni por quien. Curiosamente, el tratado de venta de las islas hispanas de Micronesia de 1899 olvidó citar cuatro grupos de islas (Guedes, Coroa, Pescadores y Ocea), que realmente siguen siendo españolas (en 1949 las reivindicó el Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores), y que, dado que Micronesia está bajo administración ONU salvo Guam, cabría exigir su devolución a la corona española

  50. #50 A.M.Canto 19 de ago. 2005

    Sólo para avisar de otra novedad que he añadido arriba, recogida por la BBC el pasado 15: Ahora sería la Isla de Espartel, en el Golfo de Cádiz (la propuesta de Collina-Girard, dice), que sería sepultada por un terremoto seguido de un tsunami: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4153008.stm.

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